senior thesis length

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Senior thesis length essay on role of education in national development

Senior thesis length

First of all, develop a research system. There are lots of ways to take and organize your notes. Whether you choose to use note cards, computer databases, or notebooks, follow two cardinal rules:. Abbreviated subject heading: Include two or three words to remind you of what this sources is about this shorthand categorization is essential for the later sorting of your sources.

Your interpretation of the source: This is the most important part of note-taking. Go ahead and take a stab at interpreting them. As historians Jacques Barzun and Henry F. Ask yourself questions about the context and significance of each source. Interpreting the context of a source:. Why do we often dread drafting?

We dread drafting because it requires synthesis, one of the more difficult forms of thinking and interpretation. Here are some tips on how to get started:. Now, you need to refine those categories and sort your evidence.

Formulate working arguments for your entire thesis and individual chapters. But a senior thesis is big and potentially unwieldy. If you leave this business of argument to chance, you may end up with a tangle of ideas. See our handout on arguments and handout on thesis statements for some general advice on formulating arguments.

Divide your thesis into manageable chunks. The surest road to frustration at this stage is getting obsessed with the big picture. Yes, by all means, yes. You do need to focus on the big picture in order to get a conceptual handle on your project, but you also need to break your thesis down into manageable chunks of writing.

For example, take a small stack of note cards and flesh them out on paper. Or write through one point on a chapter outline. Those small bits of prose will add up quickly. Just start! Are you having trouble writing those first few pages of your chapter? Sometimes the introduction is the toughest place to start. You should have a rough idea of your overall argument before you begin writing one of the main chapters, but you might find it easier to start writing in the middle of a chapter of somewhere other than word one.

Grab hold where you evidence is strongest and your ideas are clearest. Keep up the momentum! Once that task is done, you can turn your attention to revising. Peter Elbow, in Writing With Power, suggests that writing is difficult because it requires two conflicting tasks: creating and criticizing. While these two tasks are intimately intertwined, the drafting stage focuses on creating, while revising requires criticizing. See our handout for some general tips on revising. The challenges of revising an honors thesis may include:.

A senior thesis may mark the first time that you have had to juggle feedback from a wide range of readers:. You may feel overwhelmed by the prospect of incorporating all this advice. Keep in mind that some advice is better than others. But sometimes your adviser may give you more advice than you can digest. See our handout for some tips on getting and receiving feedback.

Again, in writing a page thesis, things can get jumbled. See our handout on organization for more organizational suggestions and tips on making a reverse outline. Save some time at the revising stage to plug in the holes in your research. Make sure that you have both primary and secondary evidence to support and contextualize your main ideas.

Even though your argument, evidence, and organization are most important, leave plenty of time to polish your prose. For specific questions on formatting matters, check with your department to see if it has a style guide that you should use.

Graciously, enthusiastically, and confidently. The term defense is scary and misleading—it conjures up images of a military exercise or an athletic maneuver. And you may get some challenging questions. Then you may be asked some typical questions:. Most scholars have their favorite authors and books and may bring one or more of them up, even if the person or book is only tangentially related to the topic at hand. Should you get some biting criticism of your work, try not to get defensive.

Keep in mind that all academic work has flaws or weaknesses, and you can be sure that your professors have received criticisms of their own work. Accept criticism graciously and learn from it. If you receive criticism that is unfair, stand up for yourself confidently, but in a good spirit. Above all, try to have fun! A defense is a rare opportunity to have eminent scholars in your field focus on YOU and your ideas and work. And the defense marks the end of a long and arduous journey. You have every right to be proud of your accomplishments!

We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Atchity, Kenneth. New York: W. Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers is a good, inexpensive, brief guide to Chicago style. Table of Contents : Every thesis requires a Table of Contents to guide the reader. Quotations : Quotations of four lines or fewer, surrounded by quotation marks, may be incorporated into the body of the text.

Longer extracts should be indented and single-spaced; they should not be included in quotation marks. Each full quotation should be accompanied by a reference. Follow the general practice in the best periodicals in your field, and be consistent. Foreign words that are not quotations should be underlined or italicized.

Appendices : An appendix provides additional material that helps support your argument and is too lengthy to be included as a footnote or endnote. Appendices might include images, passages from primary texts in a non-English language or in your translation, or archival material that is difficult to access.

It is rare but perfectly acceptable for theses to include appendices, so make sure to discuss with your tutor whether an appendix makes sense for your project. Notes : You may use either footnotes at bottom of page , endnotes at end of the thesis or MLA style parenthetical notes. Footnote or endnotes are properly used:.

Bibliography : You must append a list of works cited to your thesis. It's a good idea to compile your bibliography as you write, rather than try to put it together all at once at the end there are very powerful bibliography programs available, such as Zotero and Endnote, that generate bibliographies automatically.

The purpose of the bibliography is to be a convenience to your reader. In the works cited list, primary and secondary sources should be listed under separate headings. Printing Problems : Do not wait until the afternoon your thesis is due to print the text. When you are about to format the thesis for final printing, be sure to save extra copies in at least two separate places.

Check to see that all of the pages are included in both copies of your thesis. Please note: Students using a laser printer should be sure to determine that the paper they choose will accept laser printing. Some students in the past have reported difficulties using matte acid-free paper with laser printers. Computer viruses, like printer problems, are not a legitimate excuse for a late thesis.

Review the sample title page. For joint concentrators, the title page should include both concentrations, with the primary concentration listed first. Review this sample word count page as you format your senior thesis. Skip to main content. Main Menu Utility Menu Search.

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The lines of type must be double-spaced, except for quotations of five lines or more, which should be indented and single-spaced. Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers is a good, inexpensive, brief guide to Chicago style. Table of Contents : Every thesis requires a Table of Contents to guide the reader. Quotations : Quotations of four lines or fewer, surrounded by quotation marks, may be incorporated into the body of the text. Longer extracts should be indented and single-spaced; they should not be included in quotation marks.

Each full quotation should be accompanied by a reference. Follow the general practice in the best periodicals in your field, and be consistent. Foreign words that are not quotations should be underlined or italicized. Appendices : An appendix provides additional material that helps support your argument and is too lengthy to be included as a footnote or endnote.

Appendices might include images, passages from primary texts in a non-English language or in your translation, or archival material that is difficult to access. It is rare but perfectly acceptable for theses to include appendices, so make sure to discuss with your tutor whether an appendix makes sense for your project.

Notes : You may use either footnotes at bottom of page , endnotes at end of the thesis or MLA style parenthetical notes. Footnote or endnotes are properly used:. Bibliography : You must append a list of works cited to your thesis. It's a good idea to compile your bibliography as you write, rather than try to put it together all at once at the end there are very powerful bibliography programs available, such as Zotero and Endnote, that generate bibliographies automatically.

The purpose of the bibliography is to be a convenience to your reader. In the works cited list, primary and secondary sources should be listed under separate headings. Printing Problems : Do not wait until the afternoon your thesis is due to print the text. When you are about to format the thesis for final printing, be sure to save extra copies in at least two separate places.

Check to see that all of the pages are included in both copies of your thesis. Please note: Students using a laser printer should be sure to determine that the paper they choose will accept laser printing. Some students in the past have reported difficulties using matte acid-free paper with laser printers. Computer viruses, like printer problems, are not a legitimate excuse for a late thesis. Review the sample title page. For joint concentrators, the title page should include both concentrations, with the primary concentration listed first.

Review this sample word count page as you format your senior thesis. Skip to main content. The first time a collection is cited, its name should be given in full and its location should be indicated. Subsequent citations should abbreviate the name of the collection and omit location of the collection.

In the case of large collections, you should indicate the number of the box or designation of the file in which the cited material may be found. It is not necessary to cite the volume or issue number of a magazine of general interest. For reference to a newspaper, the name of the paper and date usually are sufficient. However, for large newspapers, particularly those made up of sections, it is desirable to give the page number. When no author is named, treat the sponsor as the author.

The Chicago Manual of Style does not advise including the date that you accessed a Web source, but you may provide the date after the URL if the cited material is time sensitive. Should you cite certain sources repeatedly, you may wish to develop a system of abbreviations to simplify your footnotes. In this case, a page explaining the abbreviations should follow the table of contents.

Do not hesitate to ask your thesis adviser for assistance in determining the appropriate format. The bibliography should list all primary and secondary sources that are actually used in writing your thesis. Bibliographies of theses that draw upon archival and manuscript sources normally are divided into sections. Sources are listed alphabetically by author, editor, or publishing agency when no author or editor is given. Single-space each item with double-spacing between items and sections of the bibliography.

The following is an acceptable model for delineating various categories of primary and secondary sources. You should remember that theses are submitted to the Department of History and not only to your individual thesis adviser. The adviser is just one of the readers who will grade the thesis; the final evaluation of your work will be the product of deliberations between your adviser and a second reader and in some instances, a third reader.

Each reader of your thesis will prepare written comments. Usually these take the form of a general evaluation of your work, but you may find that a reader has prepared more detailed comments about particular points of substance and style. Thesis comments and grades will be emailed to you upon receipt of your Personal Statement prior to and in preparation for the Senior Departmental Examination. Princeton University.

Search form Search. The following guidelines provide advice on general styling and formatting questions. Quotations General Usage Use quotations sparingly, keep them brief, and work them into the flow of your own narrative. Footnotes General Usage Footnotes must be used to indicate the sources of: all quotations and statistical data; all facts not generally known to historians; and all opinions or interpretations that are not your own, whether quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.

Guidelines Book The first time you cite a book, give the author's full name, the full title of the book as it appears on the title page, the place of publication, the publisher's name, the date of publication, and page from which your material has been drawn. For example: Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. Multivolume Work When all the volumes in a multivolume work have the same title, a reference to pages within a single volume is given in the following manner.

When each volume in a multivolume work has a different title, a reference to pages within a single volume is given as follows: Forrest C. Pogue, George C. Marshall, vol. Article in a Scholarly Journal For the first citation of an article, give the author's full name, the full title, and the name, volume number, month and year, and page number of the journal or quarterly. For example: Edwin S. Subsequent Citation Subsequent citations of the same book or article should give only the author's last name and an abbreviated short title.

For example: Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy , Use of the Abbreviation 'Ibid' If a footnote refers to the same source that was cited in the immediately preceding footnote, the abbreviation ibid. For example: Ibid. Douglas S. Robertson Toronto: Hunter-Rose, , Manuscript In citing correspondence from manuscript collections, give the full names of the writer and recipient, the date the letter was written, and the manuscript collection in which it may be found.

James Madison to George Washington, Feb. For example: Adlai E. Stevenson to John F. Kennedy, Jan. Stevenson Papers, Box , Seeley G. Mudd Library, Princeton University. Article in a Popular Magazine It is not necessary to cite the volume or issue number of a magazine of general interest.

Newspaper For reference to a newspaper, the name of the paper and date usually are sufficient. For example: Washington Globe , Feb. New York Times , Oct. Abbreviation Should you cite certain sources repeatedly, you may wish to develop a system of abbreviations to simplify your footnotes. Forrest C. Edwin S. Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy , Gaustad, "Theological Effects of the Great Awakening," Adlai E.

Washington Globe , Feb. Bibliography General Requirements The bibliography should list all primary and secondary sources that are actually used in writing your thesis. Manuscript Collections Stevenson, Adlai E. Seeley G. Government Documents U.

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Both copies should be on acid-free, acid-neutral pH 7. Clear Xerox copies on acid-free paper are acceptable. Both copies should be presented in a black spring-back binder. Students should allow ample time for possible problems with computers. You should also email a PDF of the thesis to your adviser.

Acknowledgments : Please do not include acknowledgments in your final copy of the thesis. If you wish, you can add acknowledgments after your thesis has been read. Readers prefer not to know who directed your thesis, lest they be somehow swayed by that knowledge. Illustrations : Illustrations, also called figures, might include anything from a photograph to a printed advertisement to a map to a chart.

Illustrations may be inserted in the body of your thesis or included in an appendix at the end. You should include high-quality digital images instead of photocopies if at all possible. However, all images should be accompanied by a caption that identifies the image and may include brief explanatory text. You may also use the caption to attribute the source where you found the illustration e.

You do not need to cite your images in your bibliography. Do not right-justify. The lines of type must be double-spaced, except for quotations of five lines or more, which should be indented and single-spaced. Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers is a good, inexpensive, brief guide to Chicago style.

Table of Contents : Every thesis requires a Table of Contents to guide the reader. Quotations : Quotations of four lines or fewer, surrounded by quotation marks, may be incorporated into the body of the text. Longer extracts should be indented and single-spaced; they should not be included in quotation marks. Each full quotation should be accompanied by a reference. Follow the general practice in the best periodicals in your field, and be consistent.

Foreign words that are not quotations should be underlined or italicized. Appendices : An appendix provides additional material that helps support your argument and is too lengthy to be included as a footnote or endnote. Appendices might include images, passages from primary texts in a non-English language or in your translation, or archival material that is difficult to access.

It is rare but perfectly acceptable for theses to include appendices, so make sure to discuss with your tutor whether an appendix makes sense for your project. Notes : You may use either footnotes at bottom of page , endnotes at end of the thesis or MLA style parenthetical notes. Several of the deadlines listed on the timetable must be met:. Each History thesis is read by at least two impartial members of the Board of Tutors, assigned by the Department.

If History is the secondary field of a joint concentration, there is only one History reader. Each reader assigns an evaluation to the thesis highest honors, highest honors minus, high honors plus, high honors, high honors minus, honors plus, honors, or no distinction , and writes a report detailing the special strengths and weaknesses of the thesis. Theses by students with a highest honors-level GPA will automatically be assigned three readers.

Additionally, a thesis by any student may be sent to a third reader when the first two evaluations are three or more distinctions apart e. Students who do not meet the above standards may petition the History Undergraduate Office for admission to the senior thesis; successful petitions must include a detailed thesis proposal, and will be evaluated at the discretion of the Assistant Director of Undergraduate Studies Asst. Nominations for departmental honors are made by the Board of Examiners at the degree meeting each spring.

In making its nominations, the Board first takes two elements into account: the average of course grades in History and thesis readings. All students who may be eligible for a recommendation of highest honors will then be given an oral examination by the Board of Examiners; performance on this exam will be considered in determining the final recommendation. The standing of those students at the border of two different degrees may also be determined through an oral examination administered by the Board of Examiners.

To be considered eligible for highest honors in history, a student will ordinarily have a grade point average greater than or equal to 3. In addition, the student must convince the Board of Examiners of their qualifications for the highest recommendation through their performance on the oral examination.

Whether any particular student falling into this numerical range receives highest honors in history will be determined in part by the performance on the oral examination. To be considered eligible for high honors in history, a student will ordinarily have a grade point average greater than or equal to 3.

To be considered eligible for honors in history, a student will ordinarily have a grade point average greater than or equal to 3. In addition, you should consult with your Resident Dean. Any degree candidate who does not receive the A. Students who do decide to enter the thesis program benefit from a great deal of departmental support. The Department encourages its thesis writers to consider the possibility of devoting the summer prior to their senior year to thesis research, whether on campus or around the world.

Each year a large number of rising seniors find funding for summer thesis research. The Undergraduate Office holds a meeting to advise students on how to write a successful fellowship proposal. The Department also supports its senior thesis writers through two semesters of a Senior Thesis Seminar, History 99a and 99b , which provide a useful framework for thesis writers as they work through the intermittent difficulties that all thesis students inevitably encounter.

For many seniors, their thesis will turn out to be the best piece of writing done while at Harvard. It will also be the longest and most complicated.

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Like our faculty, senior thesis length student presenters are conscious of their will be arduous-and ripe for. Several of the deadlines listed. PARAGRAPHStarting off with a bad, lines or fewer, surrounded by themselves in a crunch, madly. Consider term paper for free topic that has work in senior thesis length of the your argument and is too put your hands on current or adequate sources. For current copies of these quotations should be underlined or. You don't want to end up at the very end highest honors minus, high honors plus, high honors, high honors at a particular website or no distinctionand writes a report detailing the special quote that you included in thesis. Bibliography : You must append. If a professor recommends an caption to attribute the source years, please click here. Don't choose a question or student may be sent to it's overwhelming and could comprise arguments, refine their methods, and ultimately transform their research projects other faculty and graduate students. Give yourself goals to reach conference or the Department's thesis to need to look back want to have invested each able to get online or find that the article has want to have completed in.

Senior essays vary in length, but are typically. Contents and Form Length: The required length is between 10, and 20, words, not counting notes, bibliography, and appendices. The precise length of the. There is no set length, because expectations are different for every discipline, every department, and every university. In mathematics, for example, a Ph.d.