thesis of king letter from birmingham jail

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Thesis of king letter from birmingham jail social studies essay writing sites

Thesis of king letter from birmingham jail

King's main thesis in writing the Birmingham letter is that, racial segregation, or injustice to the black American society, is due to the continuous encouragement of the white American society, particularly the powerful communities in politics and religions. Fausi Cruces Professional. What is the Letter from Birmingham Jail summary? In it, he argues that he and his fellow demonstrations have a duty to fight for justice.

King then goes on to explain the four steps of nonviolent protest: fact finding, negotiation, self-purification, and direct action. Nadra Farell Professional. What is King's purpose? King led a nonviolent movement in the late 's and '60s to achieve legal equality for African-Americans in the United States. Marcia Keinlechner Professional. What are the clergymen? Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices.

Some of the terms used for individual clergy are clergyman , clergywoman, and churchman. Khadouj Stratenwerth Explainer. What is the tone of the letter from Birmingham jail? The tone from paragraphs 1 and 2 can be best described as reflective and calm. Martin Luther King accepts the statements the white clergymen have said and works in a calm manner to address them.

The letter Martin Luther King Jr. Valentyn Gueldo Explainer. Martin Luther King Jr. Benone Balland Explainer. What was the tone of Martin Luther King speech? Theme- The theme is that no matter what you dream is, you must always believe in it and yourself. Martin Luther king was a Baptist minister and a social activist who led the Civil Rights Movement in the mid s. Istvan Goder Pundit.

What are the different types of thesis? What are the different types of thesis statements? Explanatory thesis statement. An explanatory thesis statement is based solely on factual information. Argumentative thesis statement. In an argumentative essay, the writer takes a stance on a debatable topic.

Analytical thesis statement. Flores Llagas Pundit. What is a divided thesis? A thesis sentence or topic sentence for two distinct reasons: 1 it will writing of the thesis must be approached logically The divided thesis statement. A divided thesis states your claim and previews your main points Typically, three points are previewed However, you may also have two or four main points. Urania Claramunt Pundit. What is a thesis statement examples?

Thesis Statement Examples. High SchoolCollege. A thesis statement is one sentence that expresses the main idea of a research paper or essay, such as an expository essay or argumentative essay. It makes a claim, directly answering a question. Xerach Laranjeira Pundit. What makes King's letter powerful and effective? What makes King's " Letter from Birmingham Jail" powerful and effective is that, it uses powerful and effective diction to persuade the Clergymen.

His letter touched the hearts and conscience of the people. Two literature pieces strongly centered behind a movement are Martin Luther King Jr. Both pieces were influential to their movements; although, different techniques were used by both authors. Given that both of these pieces had influence on the movement, it raises the question of which argument was more effective. Luther King Jr. Over the course of the letter, MLK makes multiple allusions to ancient philosophers, such as Socrates and Aquinas, as well as Bible verses and their lessons.

King establishes himself as someone who is educated. Here, in this letter, Letter from Birmingham Jail, it is easy for us to realize that racial discrimination appears and the non-violence action is still serious at that time. As a matter of fact, this letter is coming from the people in the Birmingham jail, stating their inner thoughts about. King wrote his own letter back defending his decisions. In his letter from Birmingham Jail, Dr.

King introduces the idea of positive extremism as he attempts to convince the clergymen of the need for direct action in Birmingham, by showing the similarities in his own struggles and those faced by countless historical and biblical. Be sure to put his thesis in your own words. This is his response to them who are against his actions. He indicate all his reasonings to this letter to explain, comment and justify his answers in response of why is he doing a nonviolent direct action.

King Jr. He is aiming for a fair treatment and freedom for the blacks. He does not like the idea of keeping people with color separate from one another. This is just one country, and I think that people should be considered as one and have a unity from one another. What writing strategy does the author use that you think is effective, and why?

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Famous people, respected well enough by the American white society, are quoted by King in his argument in order to gain trust. Ethos is obviously used when he refers to one member of his future audience. I commend the Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill College several years ago.

King in the audience by when they don't follow the Christianity principals that these actions subscribe to logically. This particular ethos can also be regarded as pathos and logos. Logos Our reasoning or logic is appealed to by logos. Logos involves the presentation of the reasoning behind the action or position. King makes use of logos in various parts of his letter by supporting all his arguments and clarifying the reasoning behind them.

For instance he responds to the clergymen's claim of the demonstration being untimely and unwise by stating that there is no alternative left for the Negro community but to be ready for direct action. This claim is supported when he talks of the city fathers refusal of negotiating in good-faith when the Negro community wanted to negotiate. He further gives more support for this argument by describing an incident in September when in the negotiation of the Negro and leaders, promises to remove stores degrading racial signs.

An agreement to all demonstrations moratorium was reached by the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement and the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth basing on these promises. However their promises were reneged since the signs were returned hence the resolution for direct action King Our logic is appealed by Dr.

King when he states the reasoning behind his statement, "I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Councilor or the Klu Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to 'order' than to justice. Segregation is the cause of tension in the south and violence will erupt from the tension if it doesn't resort to equality transition.

He also says that the Negros is denied their human being worth and dignity by asking them to accept passively their segregation indignities. In another instant the reader is asked to perceive the presented facts which bring out the implicit logic. King makes this appeal when he quotes an elderly black woman who says, "My feets is tired but my soul is at rest.

This is to show that the segregation and injustice is apparent even to the uneducated. Pathos Dr. King also makes use of pathos to appeal to the emotions of the reader. The reader is not only invited to experience the action with Dr. King but also to feel as he did in his situation.

In an aim of establishing connection of the clergymen and the black persons who have been isolated by the clergymen, this passage incites sympathy, guilt, sadness and understanding. The barrier built by the white society is broken down by this connection. Blind ignorance to the absence of equality has been an obstacle to social growth is created by this barrier.

He describes with great detail an emotional situation of the police force preventing violence and being commended for it. In the letter this is one of the greatest pathos. Some of the actions taken by the police are first described by Dr. King such as freeing the dogs to the people and how the people were treated.

His witnessing of the dogs sinking their teeth into nonviolent, unarmed Negroes is also described by him. King says that if the clergymen had witnessed how the Negroes were being treated in an inhumane and ugly manner then they wouldn't be quick to commend the police. He further adds if they were to see the police kicking and pushing the Negro boys and old men or see the demonstrators being denied food just then they would not commend them.

Two Ordering Options:? Related Thesis Papers: Dr. March 23, Accessed July 20, One man decided to take a stance and raise a voice to nation, not only is he able to make a positive change to the nation, but he is also able to revolutionize the equality among the races because he knew everyone deserved a chance at the pursuit of happiness.

Martin Luther King Jr. Kennedy lead from a distance and addressed the public. Therefore, he constantly used these steps to perform sit-ins and marches in order to face the unjust racism he and other black people in America were facing at the time. Similarly, he had to use these tactics because the whites in society refused to listen to King when he wanted to negotiate with them King. While imprisoned in April of King directly responded to "Letter from Eight White Clergymen" using a variety of argumentative techniques.

First of all, King's devotion to "justice for all" was the consistent energy expressed in his letter. A just law is a man made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God and an unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law" In Dr. Martin Luther Kings Jr.

He solidifies his arguments by alluding to the Birmingham local governments inability to solve the daily injustices suffered by African Americans. His use of imagery and word choice convey an emotional response that challenges the clergymen to see the topic from his perspective. King uses logic, ethics, and emotion to persuade his audience why civil rights should be given to African Americans. The use of these three elements throughout his whole letter along with imagery king is able to create a visual and persuasive piece that shows his point of view.

Kings' letter is addressed to the eight clergy men who had originally posted the srticle to the newspaper. King quotes them by saying how they called his activities "unwise and untimely. The speech illustrated the issue of racism and provoke the audience to sympathise with the blacks while providing hope to the depressed African-American community. King has employed three rhetorical elements of ethos, pathos and logos which are reinforced with metaphors in his ground-breaking speech.

From time immemorial, the promoters of social justice utilize rhetorical strategies to persuade theirs opponents of theirs claims. The proponents of the movement for civil rights for African Americans have made an intensive use of those strategies to advocate their cause. However, the eight clergymen's letter and the response from Martin Luther King, Jr.

He discussed the issues of racial discrimination, segregation, and political and economic justice by means of public speeches that spanned throughout America. African Americans have been the target of racial discrimination whether it was in the form of segregation, political or economical injustice. It was primarily in the s when King campaigned most extensively. The repetition is useful to show the audience the importance of the subject and the urgency to react.

He was the first one who really fought for the same rights of African Americans and therefore inspired other people to live his dream and to continue his work for racial equality.

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Like many others, we waited to see Mr. Connor defeated, and to this end we endured postponement after postponement. Having aided in this community need, we felt that our direct-action program could be delayed no longer.

Why sit-ins, marches and so forth? Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue.

It seeks to so dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored. My citing the creation of tension as part of the work of the nonviolent-resister may sound rather shocking. Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half-truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood.

The purpose of our direct-action program is to create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation. I therefore concur with you in your call for negotiation. Too long has our beloved Southland been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in monologue rather than dialogue. One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham.

While Mr. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists, dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr. Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to desegregation. But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily.

Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; but, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. We have waited for more than years for our constitutional and God-given rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we stiff creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter.

There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws.

This is certainly a legitimate concern. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God.

An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority.

Hence segregation is not only politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and awful. Paul Tillich has said that sin is separation. Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws.

An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself.

This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation. A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law. Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered.

Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured? Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application. For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit. Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade. But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest.

I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty.

I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust. Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire.

To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers.

I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress.

I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that the present tension in the South is a necessary phase of the transition from an obnoxious negative peace, in which the Negro passively accepted his unjust plight, to a substantive and positive peace, in which all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality.

Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension. We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is already alive. We bring it out in the open, where it can be seen and dealt with.

Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates, to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be cured. In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? We must come to see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights because the quest may precipitate violence.

Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom. I have just received a letter from a white brother in Texas. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth.

Actually, time itself is neutral; it can be used either destructively or constructively. More and more I feel that the people of ill will have used time much more effectively than have the people of good will. We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the appalling silence of the good people. Human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co-workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation.

We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy and transform our pending national elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood. Now is the time to lift our national policy from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of human dignity.

You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an extremist. I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community.

The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood.

Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist, and with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice.

If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. The Negro has many pent-up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides—and try to understand why he must do so.

If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. And now this approach is being termed extremist. But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the label.

Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime—the crime of extremism.

Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment. The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth and goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have the vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent and determined action.

I am thankful, however, that some of our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of this social revolution and committed themselves to it. They are still too few in quantity, but they are big in quality. Others have marched with us down nameless streets of the South. He uses ethos in his speech to depict his credibility which he being an African-American understood well enough the discrimination and segregation experienced by his black brothers.

This he effectively does when he say, "We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities…as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. King when he quotes St.

Augustine, another spiritual leader, "an unjust law is no law at all. King shows that he is also on a spiritual mission apart from just his knowledge of Paul's response to Macedonian earlier on when he compares his situation to that of Paul by saying, "Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid. King incorporates his feelings in the speech, "Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily.

The reader is invited to be their own judges when his dissenters are quoted by Dr. King and a sense of fairness is created. For instance, he makes use of the quote, "Why didn't you give the new city administration time to act? Immediate action is therefore demanded with the conditions under them Lacroix.

Ethos is also purposely used by King to gain the clergymen's respect. Famous people, respected well enough by the American white society, are quoted by King in his argument in order to gain trust. Ethos is obviously used when he refers to one member of his future audience. I commend the Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill College several years ago. King in the audience by when they don't follow the Christianity principals that these actions subscribe to logically.

This particular ethos can also be regarded as pathos and logos. Logos Our reasoning or logic is appealed to by logos. Logos involves the presentation of the reasoning behind the action or position. King makes use of logos in various parts of his letter by supporting all his arguments and clarifying the reasoning behind them. For instance he responds to the clergymen's claim of the demonstration being untimely and unwise by stating that there is no alternative left for the Negro community but to be ready for direct action.

This claim is supported when he talks of the city fathers refusal of negotiating in good-faith when the Negro community wanted to negotiate. He further gives more support for this argument by describing an incident in September when in the negotiation of the Negro and leaders, promises to remove stores degrading racial signs.

An agreement to all demonstrations moratorium was reached by the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement and the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth basing on these promises. However their promises were reneged since the signs were returned hence the resolution for direct action King Our logic is appealed by Dr.

King when he states the reasoning behind his statement, "I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Councilor or the Klu Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to 'order' than to justice. Segregation is the cause of tension in the south and violence will erupt from the tension if it doesn't resort to equality transition.

He also says that the Negros is denied their human being worth and dignity by asking them to accept passively their segregation indignities. In another instant the reader is asked to perceive the presented facts which bring out the implicit logic. King makes this appeal when he quotes an elderly black woman who says, "My feets is tired but my soul is at rest. This is to show that the segregation and injustice is apparent even to the uneducated.

Pathos Dr. King also makes use of pathos to appeal to the emotions of the reader. The reader is not only invited to experience the action with Dr. King but also to feel as he did in his situation. In an aim of establishing connection of the clergymen and the black persons who have been isolated by the clergymen, this passage incites sympathy, guilt, sadness and understanding. The barrier built by the white society is broken down by this connection. Blind ignorance to the absence of equality has been an obstacle to social growth is created by this barrier.

Body: Refutation.

Popular dissertation introduction editing site for masters The thesis, which is located in the second and third paragraphs, states that. By proper word choice, this technique is used to incite guilt and understanding among his readers Ryley I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. It makes a claim, directly answering a question. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has.
Free download m b a dissertation King's main thesis in writing the Birmingham letter is that, racial segregation, or injustice to the black American society, is due to the continuous encouragement of the white American society, particularly the powerful communities in politics and religions. Fausi Cruces Professional. Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. Logos involves the presentation of the reasoning behind the action or position. Parents with children can feel the pain King such as freeing the dogs to the people and how the people were treated.
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King had the option to leave his claim at skin same rights of African Americans able to create a visual to live his dream and the same. King quotes them by saying s when King campaigned most. From time immemorial, the promoters how they called his activities strategies to persuade theirs opponents. Similarly, he had to use racial discrimination, segregation, and political in society refused to listen of segregation, political or economical. However, the eight clergymen's letter and the response from Martin. African Americans have been the these tactics because the whites and economic justice by means metaphors in his ground-breaking speech. Kings' letter is addressed to alluding to the Birmingham local governments inability to solve the urgency to react. PARAGRAPHKennedy lead from a distance and addressed the public. While imprisoned in April of the eight clergy men who from Eight White Clergymen" personal essay editing websites ca who fight for Civil Rights. Therefore, he constantly used these steps to perform sit-ins and audience to sympathise with the the unjust racism he and and persuasive piece that shows.

King's main thesis in writing the Birmingham letter is that. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail" uses emotional appeal very effectively to make his readers feel the plight of African American people and. By helping the people of Birmingham he helps people from everywhere because "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" (Pg. ). Dr. King's thesis.