who owns copyright of phd thesis

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Who owns copyright of phd thesis

As a University Higher Degree by Research student, you will be using and creating copyright material. For a copyright overview, visit the What is copyright? Generally, your thesis will be protected by copyright as a literary work. The copyright in a thesis created by a student while enrolled at the University will usually be owned by the student. When researching your thesis topic, you may be copying or otherwise using a wide range of materials protected by copyright such as published books, journal articles, material on the internet, artworks, diagrams, illustrations, maps, photos, recorded music, TV programs and movies.

Depending on the circumstances, you may be able to use the copyright material of others to research your thesis topic under the fair dealing exception for research or study but such use is subject to a number of restrictions and conditions. For further information on this fair dealing exception, visit Fair dealing. While you write your thesis it is worth thinking ahead and deciding if you are interested in making it available open access , or if you want it published.

Alternatively, if you do not want your thesis openly accessible in this way, it will be made available as a local access thesis. A local access thesis is accessible by:. Contact the Higher Degree by Research Administration Centre for further information on selecting the appropriate level of access for your thesis. It is important to consider these options at this stage because as you write your thesis you may want to include copyright material of others such as:.

If you want your thesis to be made available open access, or if you want it published by a publisher, you will need to obtain permission from the copyright owners of any third party copyright material included in the thesis. You will not be able to rely on the fair dealing exceptions. For further information on seeking permission to use copyright material, visit Seeking permission.

Seeking permission and obtaining clearances to use copyright material can be time consuming, so start early in the research and writing process, and factor in plenty of time. Other things to consider as your write your thesis include:. If you only want local access for your thesis, then depending on the circumstances, you may be able to use the copyright material of others in your thesis under one of the fair dealing exceptions, but this will be subject to a number of restrictions and conditions.

For further information on the fair dealing exceptions for research or study, criticism or review, and parody or satire, visit Fair dealing. If your thesis will include papers or articles you have written that have been published, you will need to check the copyright status of that material with your publisher.

You may, for example, have assigned or exclusively licensed all your copyright to the publisher, in which case, you will not be able to use that material in your thesis and make it available open access without their permission. You will also need to comply with the moral rights obligations see Moral rights: works and films and Moral rights of performers.

Failure to do so could also leave you open to allegations of plagiarism. Following the completion of your thesis and award of your degree, you may decide that you want your thesis published. Discuss publication options with your supervisor as they will be aware of publication trends in your discipline. You should check whether you need to obtain separate or additional permissions to use substantial parts of third party material in published versions of all or part of your thesis. Following the publication of your copyright material, you should always be aware of the terms on which the material is published.

For example, if you assigned all your copyright to a publisher, this may prevent you from using your copyright material in particular ways eg you may not be able to use your material to create derivative works or upload your research output to an open access institutional repository. For further general information on copyright in relation to theses and open access, you may want to consider the following:.

These arrangements are made within each department. However it waives this right in relation to two important categories: Scholarly materials and teaching materials. Section 2. UCL also retains a broad licence to reuse scholarly and teaching materials in all formats created by staff in the course of their duties.

The details can be found in paragraph 2. In cases where IP resulting from your work is developed commercially there are standard revenue sharing arrangements which apply see paragraph 4. As a work is protected by copyright automatically, it is not necessary to take any further action to bring it into copyright protection.

If you are willing to allow others to reuse your work, you may wish to consider using a Creative Commons Licence. There is a choice of CC licences giving permissions for different types of reuse and you may choose one which suits your needs. This is particularly useful if your work is to be made available on a web site.

By using a Creative Commons licence you do not give up your claim to copyright in your work. In particular you may continue to assert your right to be acknowledged as the author and you may publish your work as you choose. Should you change your mind, however, you will not be able to withdraw the licence from anyone who is already reusing your work in line with the terms of the Creative Commons licence you have previously applied to your work. Some funding organisations which require open access publication of your research work also specify the use of a specific Creative Commons Licence.

Sharing content we create is common practice. Many of us will upload photos or video clips to sites like Flickr or YouTube. It is worth taking a moment to consider copyright implications and also the reuse policy of the site before uploading your content. Are you required to grant the site owners a licence to reuse your work for example and are you happy with that?

Flickr allows an individual to decide how their photographs may be viewed and reused, if at all. In addition it includes the option to add a Creative Commons licence to any of your photographs. This in turn means that anyone looking for reusable images can search for photographs with a CC licence attached. When you publish papers in academic journals or books there is generally a contractual agreement between the author and publisher which determines what happens to copyright in the work.

It is a good idea to ask to see the agreement at an early point. You may be asked to assign transfer the copyright in your work to the publisher. By assigning your copyright you lose any control on how it is reproduced in the future. Therefore it is worth considering whether there are alternatives available which allow you to retain the copyright, such as granting the publisher a licence to publish the work.

You should try to negotiate the details of the agreement with the publisher if you are unhappy with the details. Regardless of whether you retain the copyright in your work, the publisher owns the copyright in the typographical arrangement of the published version which lasts for 25 years. From the copyright perspective a doctoral thesis is an unpublished work prepared for the purposes of examination. The inclusion of extracts from copyright works may be covered by the fair dealing exception for purposes of instruction and examinations as long as it is "fair dealing".

Third party material should always be accompanied by sufficient acknowledgement. If however you go on to publish your thesis - either commercially or within an open access web site - then the exception for instruction and examinations no longer applies. A different exception, such as the quotations exception may apply but otherwise permission will have to be obtained from the copyright owner.

More information about theses and depositing them in UCL Discovery is available.

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For a copyright overview, visit the What is copyright? Generally, your thesis will be protected by copyright as a literary work. The copyright in a thesis created by a student while enrolled at the University will usually be owned by the student. When researching your thesis topic, you may be copying or otherwise using a wide range of materials protected by copyright such as published books, journal articles, material on the internet, artworks, diagrams, illustrations, maps, photos, recorded music, TV programs and movies.

Depending on the circumstances, you may be able to use the copyright material of others to research your thesis topic under the fair dealing exception for research or study but such use is subject to a number of restrictions and conditions. For further information on this fair dealing exception, visit Fair dealing.

While you write your thesis it is worth thinking ahead and deciding if you are interested in making it available open access , or if you want it published. Alternatively, if you do not want your thesis openly accessible in this way, it will be made available as a local access thesis. A local access thesis is accessible by:.

Contact the Higher Degree by Research Administration Centre for further information on selecting the appropriate level of access for your thesis. It is important to consider these options at this stage because as you write your thesis you may want to include copyright material of others such as:. If you want your thesis to be made available open access, or if you want it published by a publisher, you will need to obtain permission from the copyright owners of any third party copyright material included in the thesis.

You will not be able to rely on the fair dealing exceptions. For further information on seeking permission to use copyright material, visit Seeking permission. Seeking permission and obtaining clearances to use copyright material can be time consuming, so start early in the research and writing process, and factor in plenty of time. Other things to consider as your write your thesis include:. If you only want local access for your thesis, then depending on the circumstances, you may be able to use the copyright material of others in your thesis under one of the fair dealing exceptions, but this will be subject to a number of restrictions and conditions.

For further information on the fair dealing exceptions for research or study, criticism or review, and parody or satire, visit Fair dealing. If your thesis will include papers or articles you have written that have been published, you will need to check the copyright status of that material with your publisher. You may, for example, have assigned or exclusively licensed all your copyright to the publisher, in which case, you will not be able to use that material in your thesis and make it available open access without their permission.

You will also need to comply with the moral rights obligations see Moral rights: works and films and Moral rights of performers. Failure to do so could also leave you open to allegations of plagiarism. Following the completion of your thesis and award of your degree, you may decide that you want your thesis published. Discuss publication options with your supervisor as they will be aware of publication trends in your discipline. You should check whether you need to obtain separate or additional permissions to use substantial parts of third party material in published versions of all or part of your thesis.

Following the publication of your copyright material, you should always be aware of the terms on which the material is published. For example, if you assigned all your copyright to a publisher, this may prevent you from using your copyright material in particular ways eg you may not be able to use your material to create derivative works or upload your research output to an open access institutional repository.

For further general information on copyright in relation to theses and open access, you may want to consider the following:. This information is provided as general information only. If you have included 3rd party copyright material which has not been published, for example photographs of art works in a gallery or copies of web documentation of a performance, or you are including a substantial amount or the whole of a work then you will need to seek permission from the copyright holder to include that in the copies of your thesis that you deposit in the library.

Again, this is because copyrights include the right to distribute the work. Please note that while students are being asked to make best efforts to seek permission to include third party copyright material in the electronic version of their thesis you will not be penalised if it is not possible to gain permission, either because permissions are not granted, or because it would either be too onerous or too expensive to obtain permissions.

The outcome of your examination will not be affected in any way. No student will be required to make any payments to copyright holders for material they wish to include in their thesis. Also note that a different 'fair dealing' exception applies to the use of copyright material for the purpose of examination. If the 3rd party copyright material within your thesis consists of a short quotation from a published work and you have acknowledged and referenced it adequately it will probably not be necessary to seek permission from the copyright holder.

In part:. However, the work must appear within the body of the article. If in doubt, it is best to seek permission. Ideally, you should seek permission to include 3rd party copyright material in your thesis as you go along rather than at the point of writing up your thesis. If you intend to include material that you yourself have published , e. The easiest way to do this is by contacting the publisher directly and checking. Most publishers will permit this. If you have assigned copyright to a publisher, e.

This is a suggested wording you can use to contact your publisher:. The repository is non-commercial and openly available to all. I would be grateful if you could advise if this will be acceptable. To seek permission to include 3rd party material within the electronic version of your thesis you need to contact the rights holder. This may be the author of a work, a publisher , an illustrator etc. In the case of material from books and journals your first course of action should be to contact the publisher.

Many publishers give details on their web site of how to seek permission and who to contact. If the publisher does not hold the rights to the work they should forward your enquiry to whoever does. Once you have established who to contact you can use the template below to form the basis of a letter or e-mail to the rights holder asking permission to include the material in the electronic version of your thesis.

If the rights holder does not reply immediately you may choose to contact them again. However, note that you may not deem a lack of response as permission to go ahead. When contacting rights owners to seek permission to include their material within your thesis it is important that you are clear about what you are asking for.

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The Student Registry recognises that research degrees are frequently now carried out in groups and, in almost all subjects, you are likely to have made use of the help of others to some extent. If you have undertaken collaborative work during the course of your research, you must ensure this is declared in the Preface and specified in the text.

The Declaration Form and Deposit and Copying of Thesis Declaration submitted with the soft bound copy of the thesis both require a signature to confirm this. You must indicate clearly which portions of the thesis describe work undertaken by others or in collaboration with others, and give the names of those persons with whom you have collaborated along with an indication of the extent to which you have availed yourself of their assistance.

Students working with others should also refer to the information below on Intellectual Property. You are required to declare that the thesis submitted is not substantially the same as any that you have submitted for a degree or diploma or other qualification at the University of Cambridge or any other university or similar institution and to identify any parts which have either been - or will be - submitted for any degree, diploma, or other qualification at the University of Cambridge.

A signed declaration in support of this must be submitted along with the soft bound thesis and be included in the thesis. For further details and forms for this declaration visit the Submitting the Thesis page. You are not permitted to include the whole or the major part of the text of a previous thesis within the PhD, MSc or MLitt degree thesis. However, you may include some parts - including tables, diagrams etc.

The University of Cambridge recognises the right of graduate students to own Intellectual Property IP that they have generated during the course of their studies. However, there are possible exceptions to this - as listed below:. New agreements may be required if the direction of your research changes and as a consequence you change to a different research group. If you have entered into a formal agreement under any of the circumstances described above, you should check whether this commits you to any particular arrangement concerning the submission and examination of your thesis and access to your work and results.

This may involve you, your examiners or the University making certain undertakings. For example:. You should discuss the implications of your contract with your supervisor; who may draw on the expertise of the University's Research Office. In the course of almost any research project, you and your supervisor will exchange ideas such that it is often very difficult in retrospect to ascertain to whom any given idea belongs.

If you, your supervisor or other member of a research group feels that misunderstanding may arise in future over the ownership of an idea or piece of work, he or she should make notes whether in a laboratory notebook or other progress log at the time and ask the other person or persons concerned to confirm their agreement.

Particular care is needed if your funder is not the same as the group's principal sponsor: there may be conflicting claims on IP and special arrangements for confidentiality may be needed. To avoid any possible misunderstanding, students and supervisors should make themselves aware of any conditions attached to funding agreements and arrangements for participation in group research.

As noted above, appropriate acknowledgement of the contribution of co-workers and others is an essential part of your research training and must be clearly explained in the thesis. Under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, , ownership of the copyright of unpublished theses and their summaries rests with the author for the duration of his or her lifetime and a given number of years thereafter, unless he or she specifically transfers it to another person.

When you submit your thesis for examination, the Board will request you sign a statement acknowledging your ownership of copyright in the thesis and asserting your right to be identified as the author of the thesis. It is your responsibity to check whether you have entered into any agreement to reassign the copyright.

You should check what is required by any funding agreement. The thesis may need to go to the funder before it is submitted for examination. In this case you will be expected to provide written confirmation from your funder or industrial supervisor, as appropriate that they have seen and approved the final version of the work.

Please note, however, that you are ultimately responsible for the work submitted and that approval under the terms of your IP agreement cannot be interpreted as a guarantee that the work is adequate for the degree sought. Examiners can be asked to sign a confidentiality agreement if your sponsors require that the contents of the thesis must remain confidential for the period of the examination. The Degree Committee will arrange for this to be done when they appoint the Examiners.

Candidates are asked to apply for this to be arranged when they request the appointment of examiners. For further infomation about restricting access, see the pages on final thesis submission. You will be able to apply for managed access to your thesis at the point you upload an electronic version of your final thesis to the University's online repository, using the upload form. An important outcome of your examination for a research degree is that your work is made available for consultation as soon as is reasonably possible.

The University requires that each thesis approved for the Ph. The abstract is photocopied for the ProQuest abstracts for Index to Theses. People wishing to consult your thesis for their own private research from elsewhere, i. Anyone seeking access to or requesting a copy of your thesis, will sign a library declaration recognising that the copyright of the thesis and summary belongs to the owner.

The declaration states that a substantial part of the thesis will not be copied without the copyright owner's written consent and undertakes that any copy made will be used for private study and not for the purposes of commercial exploitation. In addition, the thesis and summary themselves, and any photocopy supplied by the library, will contain a prominent notice drawing attention to the same points. All theses will be considered to be in the public domain, unless they have been granted managed access, catalogued by the University Library.

Search site. In all other cases, ownership of a copyright shall reside with the student. Where copyright is retained by the Institute, any further publication in whole or in part shall be made only with the authorization of the Technology Licensing Office, in consultation with the head of the department or program in which the student was registered when the thesis was accepted, as needed. Guidance on current copyright procedures is included in the Specifications for Thesis Preparation published each year by the MIT Libraries.

The Institute reserves the sole right to determine the distribution of inventions and other developments by faculty, staff, students, or others, developed wholly or in part under a sponsored research or other agreement or with the significant use of Institute facilities or funds administered by the Institute.

In certain circumstances, the Institute may grant these rights to a student in accordance with the provisions of the Guide to the Ownership, Distribution and Commercial Development of MIT Technology. This distribution will be in a manner which, in the opinion of the Institute, and subject to restrictions imposed by any contract with a sponsoring agency, will be in the best interest of the Institute, the public, and the inventors.

The Institute requires all individuals who receive MIT-administered funds, or who are in a position to invent or develop technology using significant funds or facilities, to enter into formal agreements to assign intellectual property to the Institute for ultimate distribution of rights.

Owns copyright phd thesis of who mathematics gcse coursework

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Regardless of whether you retain the copyright in your work, the publisher owns the copyright in the typographical arrangement of the published version which. Introduction. Copyright in theses is normally held by the author, so as the author you will own the copyright in your Goldsmiths thesis, unless you have made. Copyright and your thesis You own copyright in your thesis. Under copyright, you will have certain rights in your thesis such as: As an author, you also.