Members of the Khmer Rouge received special privileges not enjoyed by the rest of the population. Party members had better food,  with cadres sometimes having access to clandestine brothels. The Khmer Rouge also classified people based on their religious and ethnic backgrounds. Under the leadership of Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge had a policy of state atheism. Within a year of the Khmer Rouge's victory in the civil war, the country's monks were set to manual labor in the rural co-operatives and irrigation projects.
Several isolated revolts broke out against Pol Pot's government. The Khmer Rouge Western Zone regional chief Koh Kong and his followers began launching small-scale attacks on government targets along the Thai border. Pol Pot suspected senior military figures were behind the bombing and, although unable to prove who was responsible, had several army officers arrested.
In September , various party members were arrested and accused of conspiring with Vietnam to overthrow Pol Pot's government. The government invented claims of assassination attempts against its leading members to justify this internal crack-down within the CPK itself. It was placed under the responsibility of the defence minister, Son Sen. In the first half of , about people were sent there; in the second half of the year that number was nearer to By the spring of , people were being sent there each month.
From late onward, and especially in the middle of , the levels of violence increased across Democratic Kampuchea, particularly at the village level. Many cadres ate the livers of their victims and tore unborn foetuses from their mothers for use as kun krak talismans.
In , the government initiated a second purge, during which tens of thousands of Cambodians were accused of being Vietnamese sympathisers and killed. Purify the army! Purify the cadres! Outwardly, relations between Cambodia and Vietnam were warm following the establishment of Democratic Kampuchea; after Vietnam was unified in July , the Cambodian government issued a message of congratulations. In a speech on the first anniversary of their victory in the civil war, Khieu referred to the Vietnamese as imperialists.
On taking power, the Khmer Rouge spurned both the Western states and the Soviet Union as sources of support. After Mao died in September , Pol Pot praised him and Cambodia declared an official period of mourning. This street was barricaded off and the diplomats were not permitted to leave without escorts.
Their food was brought to them and provided through the only shop that remained open in the country. Ben Kiernan estimates that 1. While considerably higher than earlier and more widely accepted estimates of Khmer Rouge executions, the Documentation Center of Cambodia DC-Cam 's Craig Etcheson defended such estimates of over one million executions as "plausible, given the nature of the mass grave and DC-Cam's methods, which are more likely to produce an under-count of bodies rather than an over-estimate.
Heuveline's central estimate is 2. An estimated , Cambodians starved to death between and , largely as a result of the after-effects of Khmer Rouge policies. In December , the Kampuchean Communist Party Central Committee's annual plenum proposed the country ready itself for the prospect of war with Vietnam.
In December, Vietnam sent 50, troops over the border along a mile stretch, penetrating 12 miles into Cambodia. Plans for a personality cult revolving around Pol Pot were drawn up, based on the Chinese and North Korean models , in the belief that such a cult would unify the population in wartime.
The failure of Cambodian troops in the Eastern Zone to successfully resist the Vietnamese incursion made Pol Pot suspicious of their allegiances. Early in , Pol Pot's government began trying to improve relations with various foreign countries, such as Thailand, to bolster its position against Vietnam.
In September , Pol Pot began increasingly courting Sihanouk in the hope that the latter could prove a rallying point in support of the Khmer Rouge government. He also cautioned the army to avoid direct confrontations which would incur heavy losses and instead adopt guerrilla tactics. This precipitated another round of purges. On 25 December , the Vietnamese Army launched its full-scale invasion.
After the Khmer Rouge evacuated Phnom Penh, Mok was the only senior government figure left in the city, tasked with overseeing its defence. The Khmer Rouge turned to China for support against the invasion. Sary travelled to China via Thailand. Pol Pot met with these diplomats twice before the Chinese government withdrew them for their safety in March.
On 15 January, the Vietnamese reached Sisophon. There, on 1 February, they held a Central Committee conference, deciding against Deng's advice about a united front. During the monsoons of summer , the Khmer Rouge troops began filtering back into Cambodia.
I am old now and handicapped. I know that people inside Cambodia fear me. So when we drive out the contemptible Vietnamese and gain peace, I will retire if the comrades so desire. But if I return now, and the comrades can't drive out the Vietnamese, how can I sit still? I must share my experience and knowledge.
If the Vietnamese leave and we can defend our country, I will And when I die I will die peacefully. In December , Pol Pot and Nuon Chea decided to dissolve the Communist Party of Kampuchea, a decision taken with very little discussion among the party's membership, some of whom were shocked. At the same time, he believed that his main Marxist backers, the Chinese, were themselves restoring capitalism with Deng's reforms. There, he established a new base, K, several miles outside Trat.
In September , Pol Pot resigned as commander-in-chief of the Khmer Rouge forces in favour of Son Sen; he nevertheless continued to wield significant influence. With the Soviet Union no longer a threat, the U. The U. Pol Pot established a new headquarters along the border, near Pailin. Sen, who was backed by the Vietnamese, refused to acknowledge defeat.
Pol Pot placed renewed emphasis on those living in Khmer Rouge territory imitating the lives of the poorest peasants and in ordered the confiscation of private transport and an end to cross-border trade with Thailand. This meant that around 4, soldiers left, almost halving the troop forces that the Khmer Rouge then commanded. We cannot last like this for very long". He suffered from aortic stenosis and no longer had access to follow-up treatment for his earlier cancer.
Pol Pot had grown suspicious of Son Sen and in June ordered his death. Khmer Rouge cadres subsequently killed Sen and 13 of his family members and aides; Pol Pot later stated that he had not sanctioned all of these killings. Mok rallied troops loyal to him at Anlong Veng , informing them that Pol Pot had betrayed their movement and then headed to Kbal Ansoang.
Pol Pot was very frail and had to be carried. While under house arrest American journalist Nate Thayer conducted the last interview with Pot where Pot stated that his "conscience is clear" but acknowledged that mistakes were made and told Thayer that "I want you to know that everything I did, I did for my country".
In late July, Pol Pot and the three Khmer Rouge commanders who remained loyal to him were brought before a mass meeting near Sang'nam. Thayer was invited to film the event. On 15 April , Pol Pot died in his sleep of heart failure. Pol's aim was to plunge the country into an inferno of revolutionary change where, certainly, old ideas and those who refused to abandon them would perish in the flames, but from which Cambodia itself would emerge, strengthened and purified, as a paragon of communist virtue.
Pol Pot considered himself a communist ,  and described his CPK as adhering to a "Marxist—Leninist viewpoint", albeit one that had been adapted to Cambodian conditions. Pol Pot took up ideas of orthodox Marxism—Leninism but, contrary to Marx and Lenin 's concepts, he believed in the ideal of an entirely self-sufficient and agrarian socialist society that would be entirely free from all foreign influences.
In re-interpreting the revolutionary role of classes and questioning the Marxist focus on the proletariat , Pol Pot embraced the idea of a revolutionary alliance between the peasantry and the intellectuals , an idea that Short linked to his reading of Peter Kropotkin while he was in Paris. Short also thought that the Khmer Rouge's ideology stood apart from other forms of Marxism due to its "monastic stress on discipline", with "the systematic destruction of the individual" being a "hallmark" of its ideology.
Pol Pot disbanded his Communist Party during the s so as to emphasise a unified national struggle against Vietnamese occupation. That decade, Pol Pot commented that "We chose communism because we wanted to restore our nation. We helped the Vietnamese, who were communist. But now the communists are fighting us. So we have to turn to the West and follow their way. Short observed that decision-making in Pol Pot's Cambodia was "unruly", making it dissimilar from the centralised, organised processes found in other Marxist—Leninist states.
Pol Pot's government was totalitarian ,  and he has been described as a dictator. Pol Pot had a thirst for power. It confuses the enemy". His recorded statements to small gatherings often sound more brutal than those he made to larger groups, but he never gives the impression that he is raising his voice or losing his equanimity. Thiounn Mumm, who saw him often in this period, described him by quoting G. Axelrod's characterization of Lenin: "He was a revolutionary twenty-four hours a day, and when he slept, he dreamt about revolution.
Pol Pot displayed what Chandler called a "genteel charisma",  and what Short described as a "magnetic personality". Pol Pot was softly spoken. He was friendly, and everything he said seemed very sensible. He would never blame you or scold you to your face. Pol Pot suffered from insomnia  and was frequently ill. Chandler suggested that the seven years that Pol Pot primarily spent in jungle encampments among his fellow Marxists had a significant effect on his world-view, and they "probably reinforced his sense of destiny and self-importance".
This, Short suggested, marked the Khmer Rouge's leadership out as being different from those who led the Chinese and Vietnamese Marxist movements, who tended to see violence as a necessary evil rather than something to embrace joyfully.
Pol Pot wanted his followers to develop a "revolutionary consciousness" that would allow them to act without his guidance and was often disappointed when they failed to display this. Although some busts and paintings of him were produced during the start of the war with Vietnam, Cambodia never saw songs and plays written about him, his photograph was not included in party literature, and there were no publication of his "thoughts", as had been seen with leaders in countries like China and North Korea.
Chandler described Pol Pot as one of "the visionary leaders of Cambodian history" for his attempts to radically transform the country. The idea that the deaths which occurred under Pol Pot's government should be considered genocide was first put forward by the Vietnamese government in after the revelations of the killings committed at Tuol Sleng prison.
Chandler noted that while "Cambodia's revolution" under Pol Pot produced "millions of victims", it also had some beneficiaries. Various Marxist—Leninist groups endorsed Pol Pot's government while it was in power. The small Canadian Communist League Marxist—Leninist , for instance, praised his government and sent a delegation to meet with him in Phnom Penh in December He met with Pol Pot, but was murdered shortly afterward; the culprit was never identified.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 21 July This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. Khieu Ponnary. Mea Son. Main article: Cambodian Civil War. Main article: Cambodian—Vietnamese War. Main article: Cambodian-Vietnamese War. The Phnom Penh Post.
Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 29 June Global Security. Archived from the original on 27 July Retrieved 4 July ISBN Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 6 December Archived from the original on 4 August Asia Time.
Archived from the original on 18 August Retrieved 26 August Boston: South End Press, , p. Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases. Syracuse University Press. Democratic Kampuchea was officially an atheist state, and the persecution of religion by the Khmer Rouge was matched in severity only by the persecution of religion in the communist states of Albania and North Korea, so there were not any direct historical continuities of Buddhism into the Democratic Kampuchea era.
Critical Asian Studies. S2CID European Review of History. Forced Migration and Mortality. National Academies Press. Oxford University Press. World Peace Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 5 August Hersh, Seymour M. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 14 September Los Angeles Times.
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Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on 14 September Retrieved 23 April The Washington Post. ISSN Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 2 May In Cambodia, as in Nazi Germany, Yugoslavia, and Rwanda, extremist politics conspired with a diabolic disregard for human life to produce repression, misery, and murder on a massive scale Outlook on the Cambodian Genocide.
The genocide was a brutal massacre that killed 1. This thesis is an investigation into the US response to the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia between and The Khmer Rouge enacted a ruthless program of forced relocation of…. Phnom Penh, Cambodia — A debate on whether the Khmer Rouge committed genocide against Cambodian Muslims during the s continues after a UN war crimes tribunal resumed this week A large. Many, but not all, writing assignments, require a thesis.
Incidences involving Genocide require immediate intervention from other countries' governments to prevent mass numbers of causalities.. The frequent participles can be supported by data and the president dangerous drugs act of finding their own language and rhetoric and writing processes you go to the class. In the main paragraphs of your Cambodian genocide essay, you should put forward the facts regarding the historical and political background of massacres in Cambodia, and give a brief insight into the Khmer Rouge regime ideology and its main masterminds [Ponchaud, Cambodia: Year Zero , p.
After the Cambodian genocide, the Khmer Rouge attempted to hide any and all evidence of the act, but many journalists had already uncovered the dark secret. Unique: Says something new and interesting. But the denial in a genocide can also be defined as the perpetrators. The effects of it still remain. Once the Khmer Rouge took power, they instituted a radical reorganization of Cambodian society However, it may be controversial to call this horrible event a genocide.
Despite the clear evidence that the event thesis statement on cambodian genocide took place, the world did not take action, and many Khmer Rouge high-ups later entered the Cambodian government. Follow your outline and go on to the main paragraphs. Under the Khmer Rouge, hundreds of thousands of Cambodians died.
Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda , edited by Susan E. Pol Pot who was the Prime minister of thesis statement on cambodian genocide Cambodia at the time killed Cambodians by execution, forced labor, and famine. Knowing me, I prefer the book over the movie in any circumstance. By T May 23rd, Submit resume online Comments Off on Thesis statement on cambodian genocide.
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What role did literacy play in achieving them? Second, it will consider individual issues of the magazine in relation to previous and subsequent issues to see if the representation of certain policies changed over time. The notion that reading and writing were entirely forbidden under the Khmer Rouge is inaccurate. Not only did the Khmer Rouge produce thousands of pages of written documents, but they also intended to develop an educational system to teach literacy.
This is consistent with the fact that Democratic Kampuchea was a communist-inspired regime that looked to the policies of communist revolutions elsewhere for models of reorganizing society. When exploring the Khmer Rouge educational strategy, it is necessary to understand that the destruction of the educational system was against all Marxist traditions and rules.
In general, education is of primary importance within Marxist theory; together with the revolution within the economic field and political organization, cultural and educational revolutions are the center of practical policy of communist regimes in building new society. Thus, it is clear that the Khmer Rouge were not, in principle, afraid of the ability of common people to read and write.
It was, therefore, what and how one read, rather than the ability to read and write, that made certain kinds of people suspect. As with every other aspect of daily life, the Party Center wanted to be in complete control of how, when and what people wrote, read, and thought. The Party Center was primarily concerned with agricultural development. The first eighty-five pages of the Plan are devoted to establishing goals for rice production, agriculture in general, and industry. What follows is a translation of the outline as it appears in the Plan.
Continue the struggle to abolish, uproot, and disperse the cultural, literary, and artistic remnants of the imperialists, colonialists, and all of the other oppressor classes. This will be implemented strongly, deeply and continuously one after the other from onwards. Organise work towards continuously and progressively strengthening and expanding them as assigned annually, from to to meet the requests of worker-peasant masses for the nurturing of culture, political awareness, and consciousness.
Secondary education i. General subjects — three years ii. Technical subjects — three years. In primary education it is important to give attention to abolishing illiteracy among the population. In our education system there are no examinations and no certificates; it is a system of learning through the collective and in the concrete movement of the socialist revolution and the building of socialism in specific bases, especially in the co-operatives, factories, and military units.
A Radio Broadcasting: organise general listening sessions using loud speakers in all important places and mobile work brigades. Organise many groups to produce many films to show to the people in general. C Art: Step-by step a little is enough in order not to disturb the productive forces raising production. D Newspapers: pictorial magazines, political magazines and general knowledge. Procedure: Organise these simultaneously from onwards, according to the Plan and its annual program.
The Plan does not outline in any detail how the regime intends to implement its objectives regarding education and literacy. For example, important pedagogical matters such as teacher selection and training, and the development of curriculum and materials are not discussed. Not surprisingly, agricultural production was given priority over education.
If people thought about individual benefit, they would be unwilling to submit to the demands of a Party that offered no material rewards for their work. Build, strengthen and expand the ranks of educational cadres. Some of the initiatives were eventually enacted, especially those that afforded the Party the most control over people.
For example, after , primary education was provided on a limited basis when some primary schools opened in villages Figure 2. However, these schools were only for base i. That is, one should read in an uncritical and passive way, taking things at face value and not questioning the meaning or source of the text. Many base people had received traditional Buddhist educations in a pagoda, or, in the case of women, at home, where they would have been taught through rote learning.
This kind of reader would take the rhetoric of the revolution at face value without questioning underlying motives. The most dangerous kind of reader, on the other hand, was the person who critically examined the Party line and its goals.
According to the logic of the Party Center, these readers were potential traitors who wanted to sabotage the revolution. There were also reasons for the Party to be wary of using written propaganda. It was therefore necessary to assert firm control over printed materials and the way they were received before large scale efforts to produce and disseminate written propaganda could take place.
Nonetheless, newspapers, the media, and the publication of magazines were powerful tools for convincing Cambodians that they were united by a common struggle. The Khmer Rouge, no doubt, had this in mind when they produced their revolutionary propaganda. At least three magazines were published monthly throughout the DK regime for Khmer Rouge cadres. These publications would have been among the few reading materials acceptable to the Party as it pursued its attempt to redefine Cambodian history and society.
The writing and publication of the magazines began well before the Khmer Rouge took power in April For example, Yuvachun Nung Yuvunarie Padewat Boys and Girls of the Revolution published its first issue in January and its last issue in November , about two months prior to the Vietnamese invasion that drove the Khmer Rouge from power. Tung Padewat Revolutionary Flag was first published in January , about four months before the Khmer Rouge took power.
The length of the magazines varies from 29 pages April to pages September and October-November , with most of the issues between 65 and 85 pages. In terms of printing, we know that the Khmer Rouge made use of the printing presses in Phnom Penh. The type set that was used is the same one used before in Cambodian newspapers and journals, such as those published by the Buddhist Institute. Prior to taking power in April , the Khmer Rouge handwrote the magazines and probably had them photocopied somewhere.
Throughout the period of its publication, the format of Tung Padewat remained consistent. On the cover of each issue are five overlapping red flags Figure 3. The flags all wave in the same direction, and the top of each flagstaff has a pointed tip with a tassel pointing to the right. Below the five overlapping flags, the Khmer words Tung Padewat appear in large shaded letters written in the round Mul script.
And at the bottom of the page are the issue numbers, the month, and the year of the publication. While it is beyond the scope of this essay, it would be interesting to investigate Chinese publications that may have served as models for Tung Padewat. In terms of imagery, the red flag clearly represents communism. Oddly, though, the flag itself is blank and does not have the familiar silhouette of Angkor Wat that emblazoned the national flag of Democratic Kampuchea.
Is it possible that the magazine was financed by the Chinese who might have preferred that Angkor Wat not be included? Do the five flags symbolize the five towers of Angkor Wat? In addition to the red flag, another symbol of communism in the magazine is the hammer and sickle that often appears below the title of articles. The use of this symbol raises similar questions regarding outside inspiration. It is not clear what distinguishes the Special Issues of the magazine from the other issues.
Each issue typically contains two to four articles. In addition to the articles, each issue has three to five photographs. Conspicuously absent from the contents page are the names of authors and any publication information. None of the magazines articles identifies the author, nor do the articles refer to individuals by name. Thus, the aspect of anonymity is clearly intentional. The tone and content of Tung Padewat suggest that the intended readers of the magazines were the Party cadres rather than the general population.
All the content of this paper consists of his personal thoughts on cambodian genocide and his way of presenting arguments and should be used only as a possible source of ideas and arguments Read more samples by Benjamin:. Primary Source: "I want you to know that everything I did, I did for my country. However, this genocide is considered to be thesis statement on cambodian genocide one of the most under reported global crises of the twentieth century.
Since this specific genocide is linked to the Vietnamese War that involved mass death in other countries as well, it is imaginable that the near regions that experienced genocide as well were quite similar. Cambodian civilians who survived the Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge regime experienced massive. This paper example is written by Benjamin, a student from St. The Cambodian Genocide followed the eight steps of genocide and negatively impacted Cambodia for years to come. A classification in this genocide was the Old People and the New People system A 12 year old peasant boy, who was separated from his parents, in a later memory of the Khmer Rouge The Cambodian Genocide, Ben Kiernan.
The Cambodian Genocide was the result of a social engineering project by the Khmer Rouge, attempting to create a classless agrarian society. Understanding the history of the Genocide and the horrific impact it has had upon the Khmer is an important dynamic in understanding the Khmer experience. Today, Tuol Sleng, the Cambodian landmark and must-see tourist destination, has been preserved and repurposed into a genocide museum The Khmer Rouge, Communist thesis statement on cambodian genocide insurgents in Cambodia led by the notorious Pol Pot, are responsible for a genocide that claimed the lives of over one million people.
From April 17, , to January 7, , the Khmer Rouge perpetrated one of the greatest crimes of the 20th century. Yet, throughout history the nature of imperialism has created thesis statement on cambodian genocide great dynasties and destroyed many of them, from the Romans to the Nazis to the Khmer Rouge; one way to dominate the world is by destroying cultures or civilization to have more control, this is known as genocide About the author.
A thesis is the main point or argument of an information source. The signs of genocide in the Syrian Civil War. Steps in a business plan, genocide cambodian statement thesis on All the content of this paper consists of his personal thoughts on cambodian genocide and his way of presenting arguments and should be used only as a possible source of ideas and arguments Read more samples by Benjamin:.
Despite the clear evidence that the event took place, the world did not take action, and many Khmer Rouge high-ups later entered the Cambodian government. Ambrose University with a major in Management. In Cambodia, as in Nazi Germany, Yugoslavia, and Rwanda, extremist politics conspired with a diabolic disregard for human life to produce repression, misery, and murder on a massive scale Outlook on the Cambodian Genocide.
The genocide was a brutal massacre that killed 1. This thesis is an investigation into the US response to the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia between and The Khmer Rouge enacted a ruthless program of forced relocation of…. Phnom Penh, Cambodia — A debate on whether the Khmer Rouge committed genocide against Cambodian Muslims during the s continues after a UN war crimes tribunal resumed this week A large.
This is an internal affair to be addressed by the Cambodians themselves. China had never interfered in the internal affairs of another country. Our assistance and support during that certain historical period was to support Cambodia's effort to safeguard its sovereignty and national independence. We never support wrong policies of other countries. Even though the Cambodia government never mentioned the issue of Khmer Rouge during Jiang's visit, protesters asked for apology and even restitution from China, and such request still persists.
China has never admitted or apologized for this. For a long time China has As everyone knows, the government of Democratic Kampuchea had a legal seat at the United Nations, and had established broad foreign relations with more than 70 countries. The Rescuers exhibition, which ran from to , recognized individuals who risked their lives to save others. The Cambodian rescuers are paired alongside similar profiles of courage from other world genocides.
Similar recognition to rescuers of the Cambodian Genocide by the Australian social harmony group, Courage to Care , which published an educational resource on the subject. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Mass murder of Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge in the s. Part of a series on the. Main article: History of Cambodia. Main article: Khmer Rouge. Main article: Cambodian Civil War. Main article: Cambodia—China relations. See also: Sino-Vietnamese War. Main article: Eastern Zone massacres. Further information: History of children in the military. Main article: Security Prison Main article: Khmer Rouge Tribunal. Main article: Cambodian genocide denial. Cambodia portal Communism portal. Forced Migration and Mortality.
National Academies Press. ISBN As best as can now be estimated, over two million Cambodians died during the s because of the political events of the decade, the vast majority of them during the mere four years of the 'Khmer Rouge' regime. This number of deaths is even more staggering when related to the size of the Cambodian population, then less than eight million. Subsequent reevaluations of the demographic data situated the death toll for the [civil war] in the order of , or less.
Critical Asian Studies. S2CID We may safely conclude, from known pre- and post-genocide population figures and from professional demographic calculations, that the —79 death toll was between 1. European Review of History. Since , the so-called Pol Pot regime has been equated to Hitler and the Nazis.
This is why the word 'genocide' associated with Nazism has been used for the first time in a distinctly Communist regime by the invading Vietnamese to distance themselves from a government they had overturned. This 'revisionism' was expressed in several ways. The Khmer Rouge were said to have killed 3. In fact, there were more than on the same model, at least one per district. For the United States in particular, denouncing the crimes of the Khmer Rouge was not at the top of their agenda in the early s.
Instead, as in the case of Afghanistan, it was still at times vital to counter what was perceived as the expansionist policies of the Soviets. So it became vital, with the military and financial help of China, to revive and develop armed resistance to the Vietnamese troops, with the resurrected KR at its core.
In so doing, the international community officially reintegrated some of the worst perpetrators of crimes against humanity into the world diplomatic sphere Yale University. Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 26 November Wilson Center. Asian Survey. ISSN JSTOR Radio Free Asia.
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Archived from the original on 26 March Retrieved 6 June Through interviews and physical exploration, DC-Cam identified 19, mass burial pits, prisons that operated during the Democratic Kampuchea DK period, and 81 memorials constructed by survivors of the DK regime. Like all but seven of the twenty thousand Tuol Sleng prisoners, she was murdered anyway.
Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 29 November Genocide and International Justice. Infobase Publishing. In Cook, Susan E. Nguyen Co Thach recalls: "Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have "liberated" five provinces of Cambodia in ten days. Washington, D. Asia Time. Archived from the original on 28 March World Peace Foundation. Retrieved 19 July On the higher end of estimates, journalist Elizabeth Becker writes that 'officially, more than half a million Cambodians died on the Lon Nol side of the war; another , were said to have died in the Khmer Rouge zones.
Others' attempts to verify the numbers suggest a lower number. Demographer Patrick Heuveline has produced evidence suggesting a range of , to , violent deaths from to In an article reviewing different sources about civilian deaths during the civil war, Bruce Sharp argues that the total number is likely to be around , violent deaths. Many attempts have been made to count or estimate the scale of deaths under the KR. While the KR officials claim that only around 20, civilians were killed, the true estimate likely falls somewhere between 1—3 million total deaths, with upper range estimates of those directly killed by the regime approaching 1 million.
One of the more thorough demographic studies, conducted by Patrick Heuveline, also attempts to separate out violent civilian deaths from a general increase in mortality caused by famine, disease, working conditions, or other indirect causes. He does so by grouping deaths within different age and sex brackets and analyzing treatment of these age and sex groups by the Khmer Rouge and violent regimes in general.
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SarDesai, D. Vietnam, Past and Present. Seybolt, Taylor B. Solarz, Stephen Council on Foreign Relations. His time in Paris is crucial since it was where he discovered and participated in Marxist reading groups. As Short states, it was in Paris, not in Moscow or Beijing, that in the early s Sar and his companions laid down the ideological foundations upon which Khmer Rouge ideology would be built.
From his participation in a building project in Yugoslavia in to his membership in the Stalinist French Left, it was his time in France that led the young Saloth Sar to national communism, a concept that here requires brief explanation. This meant that Western events like the French Revolution were not studied to a great degree outside of Chinese intellectual circles. This created a need to instill the importance of liberty in the minds of the Chinese so that they could more adequately fight for the liberation of their quasi- colonized nation.
Sun described the loss of total sovereignty and the role of the people in earning it back in the following passage: But we, because we have had too much liberty without any unity and resisting power, because we have become a sheet of loose sand and so have been invaded by foreign imperialism and oppressed by the economic control and trade wars of the Powers, without being able to resist, must break down individual liberty and become pressed together into an unyielding body like the firm rock which is formed by the addition of cement to sand.
He is also differentiating between individual liberty and collective efforts to gain liberty. While he was not a communist, he was a nationalist with socialist leanings. Sun Yat-Sen's vision of nationalism and socialism inspired many colonized Asian peoples to ally the doctrines of nationalism and communism. Nearly two thousand years of struggle to defend the country's sovereignty against larger and stronger foes created a strong sense of Vietnamese nationalism.
On one hand, the failure to remove the French from Indochina left many of the country's patriots wondering what method was the most appropriate and effective for ousting the foreign power. On the other, the communists did not have enough of a sizeable vanguard to put their methods into action. Ho Chi Minh was the Vietnamese leader who understood this the most clearly. Using Sun Yat-Sen and Lenin as inspirations for the anti-colonial movement, the Vietnamese communist movement projected itself as "the legitimate force representing Vietnamese national aspirations.
Ho Chi Minh's nationalist movement was an Asian example and it showed him that national communism was also very possible in Cambodia. The trip took somewhere between a month and six weeks but the exact year of Sar's arrival is unknown. It is estimated that Sar arrived at the port in Marseilles William J. According to Chandler, many of Sar's colleagues earned at least a single diploma, came from poorer origins than Sar, and "made more of an impression on people than Sar did. Somonopong was kind enough to find Sar a place to live.
Sar moved in with the sons of the governor of Kratie,62 something he would hold secret from his later peers by simply saying he lived with "a cousin. Sar remembered that "in his first year, he studied very hard and was a very good student. Sar said in French "La premiere annee, j'ai etudie avec application et j'etais assez bon etudiant. In contrast, Short believes that he applied himself and narrowly failed the final examinations. Whether he wrote the exams or not, his academic capabilities were not substantial enough, due to a lack of commitment and perhaps interest by this point, to keep his scholarship.
Ultimately, he was a weak student who was easily distracted from his work. He was too enamored with living la vie boheme to value the importance of a good education. Fortunately for Sar, one of these distractions was membership with an association of his countrymen. It was during his time with the AEK that Sar was introduced to politics and to many of his future close friends. Before this happened, however, Sar was offered an opportunity by the AEK to visit Yugoslavia with some French students in a "labor battalion.
Short quoted Sar as describing that he had no money for a vacation so he and his fellow poorer students went to Zagreb, Yugoslavia to build a national motorway. The trip was "for pleasure"71 and not for any political cause. See Chandler, Brother Number One.. The author of Khmer Nisut described the work site resembling "a massive building site" where the effort "was even more estimable because the force and the faith of the people, united around their leaders allowed them to win successive victories, aware that this was a question of national independence.
The communists, with whom Sar would soon align himself, were unhappy with Sar's trip since Yugoslavia had broken-off from Stalinist Soviet domination. Nevertheless, Yugoslavia's efforts were soon supported by Sar. He had never seen social mobilization or public works on such an enormous scale, "nor had he worked so hard as a member of a team.
Upon his return to France in , Sar reconnected with the AEK with the hope of becoming an active participant in the group's discussions on Cambodia. According to historian Wilfred Burchett, many of these students "started out as idealistic patriots, pledged to dedicating their talents and rare facilities of access to modern revolutionary theories, through their studies in Paris, to remolding Cambodian society to serve the interests of the under-privileged, especially the leu Yang, Khmer Nisut [Khmer Student] 11 January , One of the best examples was his future Minister of the Interior Hou Youn.
One of its members, Thiounn Mumm, encouraged many of the AEK's progressive members to join another association that was run clandestinely. This was the Cercle Marxiste, where Sar would read the works that first introduced him to the rudiments of communism. The Cercle Marxiste was founded by Keng Vannsak,79 a successful student mentor who had been introduced to Sar by his new friend Ieng Sary in It was built up of individual cells to keep its existence secret.
Prompted by Vannsak's departure, Sar continued to meet with the progressive students who "were kind enough to allow him to live with them. In the process of winning masters' and doctors' degrees, some of the leftist Cambodian students, especially Khieu Samphan and Hou Youn, produced the first in-depth studies85 of the Cambodian economic-social system under the French and the prospects for Of.
While he read Marx, Lenin, and Mao, the essays written by his fellow Khmer progressives helped construct Sar's awareness. The leftist cells met once a week to discuss the week's events and study texts. According to Short, the Cercle 80 Short, Vannsak served as a mentor to many young Khmer students in France having been the first Khmer to receive a scholarship to Paris in Sar married Khieu Ponnary in She was the first of two Khmer women to pass the baccalaureate exams.
Short mentions that Sar was apparently a good dancer in both the Eastern and Western styles and was a great fan of music and dance. These bourgeois luxuries were without question appealing to Ponnary, who had been raised in a very privileged Khmer family.
She would later be divorced in , diagnosed with schizophrenia, and died in Both Youn and Samphan brought with them uniquely-crafted ideologies. Youn's criticism of the cities gained widespread support in the group. Among them was the notion that cities were inherent sites of corruption. Youn went on to brand the cities as "pumps which drain away the vitality of the rural areas. If we consider the peasants and consumers as flies or mosquitoes which get trapped in the web, we can see that the peasants and consumers are prey to the merchants, the spider which spins the web.
The commercial system, the selling and exchanging of agricultural production in our country, suppresses production and squeezes the rural areas dry and tasteless, permanently maintaining them in their poverty. Ultimately, the solution was to reform the system that plagued the farmers into one that was far more egalitarian. Youn, The Cambodian Peasantry, As historian Kenneth Quinn states, the unrelenting rage exercised against all who had been associated with Lon Nol or Sihanouk, the desire for complete and total revolution and the romanticization of wholesale violence were all prominent in Fanon's writing.
Fanon was staunchly anti-proletarian, anti- intellectual and vehemently anti-bourgeois, and regarded de-colonization a very violent process. Decolonization, which sets out to change the order of the world, is, obviously, a program of complete disorder In the colonies it is the policeman and the soldiers who are the official, instituted go-betweens Non Violence is an attempt to settle the colonial problem around a green baize table.
Before any regrettable act has been performed or irreparable gesture made, before any blood has been shed. But if the masses, without waiting for the chairs to be arranged around the baize table, listen to their own voice and begin committing outrages and setting fire to buildings, the elites and the nationalist bourgeois parties will be seen rushing to the colonialists to exclaim.
This is very serious! We do not know how it will end; we must find a solution - some sort of compromise. Compromise is very important in the phenomenon of decolonization, for it is very far from being a simple one Samphan also believed that the continuing backward state of Cambodian structures after independence in was due to "the conditions of Cambodia's 'integration into the international economic systems' which inhibited any escape from the country's 'semi-colonial and semi-feudal' socio-economic structures.
Sar became a member of the French Communist Party in and apparently "vowed a lifelong commitment to its cause. His membership with the communists had to be held secret due to the Colonial government's crackdown on involvement in leftist groups. According to Chandler, Sar "attended irregularly, kept in the background, and made little impression on his colleagues.
All the Party asked was disciplined membership and a rigid following of the disciplinarian line set forth by the great "Comrade Stalin. At the time, the French Communist Party was in its heyday and "was extremely Stalinist. These works inspired Sar's love of "communism in one country", Stalin's primary principle.
He soon began to quote Stalin often while his own rhetoric began to reflect a clear Stalinist influence. Sar was once quoted by historian Francois Debre as saying "without a solidly built and solidly directed party, no theory can be applied and the enemies of socialism will profit from these occasions to replace the leadership. In the end, Sar's exposure to national communism in Yugoslavia, national liberation methods in the Cercle, and hard line governance policies in the FCP, led to his devotion to a cause and ideal.
Wi Burglar, From Chandler, Brother Number One, But we answered, "He is not our Uncle Ho. You should pay your respects. We said to the representatives of the Yugoslavian Youth Federation: "It is not right that a country as fertile as Kampuchea should have such a small population. Throughout this chapter, we have seen how Saloth Sar the mediocre student grew up in a comfortable atmosphere and journeyed to Europe to become fascinated with communist theories and nationalist ideologies.
Sar's experiences in Cambodia and under Vietnamese domination provided him with the means to put his nationalist aspirations into action. However, working with the Vietnamese "brothers" came at a price. It has been alleged by historian Stephen Heder that the Viet Minh were responsible for the "betrayal" of the Khmer revolutionaries.
During the struggle against French imperialism, the Viet Minh had relied heavily on mutual support between themselves and Cambodian revolutionaries. Hoang Anh, a senior Vietnamese communist official, urged his fellow nationalists to "devote considerable attention to Cambodia" since the group's successes in South Vietnam depended upon how effectively the Viet Minh operated in Cambodia. Cambodians often believed this idea forfeited their autonomy since the likelihood of a strong Cambodian representation was very slim.
While the idea was discarded by , the Khmer Rouge accused their brothers to the East of plotting to conquer Cambodia and force it to join a Vietnamese-led federation. While the Prince was on vacation in China, the US-backed forces of General Lon Nol seized power and launched harsh anti-communist policies.
These were prompted by the American policy in Southeast Asia, most notably in Vietnam. Like many Khmers, Sar was always cautious when associating with "the Yuon enemy. In the twelfth century, Cambodia was the strongest and the most advanced kingdom in Southeast Asia. But, as with all of the great empires in history, it began to decline in power and size as the Thai Empire and the Dai Viet kingdom expanded.
This fluctuation was commonplace in Southeast Asia. As a result of the five hundred years of decline and loss of territory in one form or another, Khmers developed a strong fear of disappearing forever as the country was "swallowed up. Sar's exposure to communist thinking intensified his Cambodian nationalist sentiment. Sar now regarded communism as the perfect means to an ends; moreover, communism was seen as the most effective way to liberate Cambodia.
Yuon was often paired with the words "enemy", "rival", and "lackey. It was succeeded by the Nguyen dynasty in the early nineteenth century. Son Ngoc Thanh, the leader of the pro-democracy Khmer Serei movement in Cambodia, had been prevented from taking power by the French in favor of Prince Sihanouk.
Thanh's supporters were enraged and launched an armed resistance against the occupying forces of the French in The resistance was known as the Khmer Issarak and had a broad membership consisting of rightists and leftists, but only a few of its leaders had any association or training 19 1 with the pro-communist Viet Minh.
To this point, the Issarak front was still guided by Cambodians. Less than a month later, he left to join another resistance. He had not yet espoused Maoism, or any tenet of Mao's thought, as his own personal political ideology. Suong recounted that Sar "praised Russia" and exclaimed "his interest in After the First Indochina War, Thanh created the Khmer Serei militia to fight Sihanouk who had come to regard Thanh as one of his greatest enemies but were largely unsuccessful.
He would be exiled by Lon Nol in the second Cambodian civil war, only to die in Vietnamese custody in The most notable event in the Serei's history was the arrest and execution of Serei activist Preap In. The event revealed Sihanouk's harsh repression of the Khmer Serei, and execution remained in the memories of Cambodians for many years. See Short, Pol Pot He remained very culturally significant among the rural populations.
After an incident in in which a monastery was struck by stray US Air Force bombs, Minh fled and eventually made his way to the Viet Minh. From there, they recruited like-minded Khmers to support the Vietnamese revolution. I 99 Chandler, Brother Number One However, as with all leftist Khmers at the time, national liberation was held above all other ambitions. It was the end of the war, and, as historian Serge Thion states, "he does not seem to have played a very significant role.
Since Sar's time with the Issarak was short due to the group's dissolution, it can be argued that he became fully devoted to communism only after the failure of the Issarak movement. As a communist, Sar recognized the difficult existence of the Cambodian lower classes as a direct consequence of capitalism and colonialism. His first known 1 97 publication was an eight page political essay titled "Monarchy or Democracy?
It also made no distinction between the Chinese, French and Russian democratic movements, stating that all three shared the common anti- monarchy stance. It also does not offer any solutions to the present struggle in Cambodia, nor does it provide a method for democracy. It was written under the pseudonym Khmer daom, meaning literally "the Original Khmer.
To him, monarchy was "an unjust doctrine, a malodorous running sore that just 1 9Q people must eliminate. He asked to be admitted as a member of the federated communist party rather than the newly-established Khmer People's Revolutionary Party, mainly due to his connections with the FCP and his ambition to be involved in an international group. Sar would eventually join the Cambodian party once they had agreed on following the ICP's political line. He branched off to found the Worker's Party of Cambodia in In Chandler, Brother Number One Sihanouk's staunch anti-communist stance did not help the cause either.
Soon, Cambodians "embraced an alliance based on mutual interest with their Vietnamese neighbors, disregarding historical animosities. Khmers often spoke of memories of pre-colonial Dai Viet division and conquest of former Cambodian territories. These memories were, according to historian Stephen Morris, "deeply rooted in the Cambodian national consciousness. To start, there were about eight million people living in Cambodia by the s, compared to a Vietnamese population that was nearly eight times that number.
The American bombings forced people to turn to radicalism, harsh repression by Sihanouk's forces turned many Khmers to regard the Prince's policies as too violent. She also asserts that the communists appealed people's desire to survive and be fed.
As Cambodia grew smaller, Vietnam grew larger and more powerful in numbers. While they ignored the historical evidence that showed that each kingdom in Southeast Asia had its period of power in the area, the Khmer Rouge described Vietnam's "annexationist nature.
The Khmer Rouge portrayal of the Vietnamese overlooked some aspects of Angkor's over-expansionist ventures of the past. Ultimately, the whole nation and people seemed to have some sort of fear that the Vietnamese were coming and there was nothing that could be done to stop them from "swallowing Kampuchea whole.
As recently as the Second Indochina War of , large Vietnamese masses flooded across the border and joined their Chinese comrades in the cities as merchants and traders, thus making cities like Phnom Penh largely non-Khmer. In their view, the Khmers were deliberately forced by the Vietnamese to live a poor and rural life. In sum, the Vietnamese and not the French were viewed as the real exploiters of Cambodia.
It would be a difficult task to attempt to absolve the French colonial administration of their many disregards for Cambodians when drawing the borders of their newly-conquered territory. Morris, In this same spirit, the French favored drawing the borders generously to make sure that they governed the most fertile territories while making the rest protectorates. In sum, many Cambodians were bitter about the favored treatment bestowed upon their Vietnamese neighbors.
Ports in Southern Cambodia were used to receive Chinese weapons and ammunition. Cambodian territory was also used in the infamous Ho Chi Minh Trail, the secret supply route that covertly transported arms and soldiers to the war in South Vietnam. It seemed as if it was only a matter of time before the Cambodian communists, including the newly-revolutionary Saloth Sar, joined their brothers in combat against the Americans.
There is speculation that the North Vietnamese requested a handful of Khmer leftists to discuss the "escalation of the war with the Americans and the expanded role the Cambodian Communists would be called upon to play. This forced many Khmer inhabitants of the area to relocate into the North or cross back into Cambodia.
Sar had been sent there to rally Khmers to support the Viet Minh while also waiting for further instructions. However, all recruits were not allowed to bear arms. In fact, none of the Cambodian communists were permitted to be armed. This was done to ensure cooperation with any and all of the Viet Minh's plans.
According to the Live Noir, Le Duan was extremely critical of the Khmer communists because they had tried to adopt their own political line and not the one being employed and religiously followed by the Viet Minh. The Khmers wanted their own line, their own party, and their own nationalistic goals. The "brotherly" relationship began to disintegrate and the seeds of Sar's hatred of the Vietnamese were sown.
In the end, Vietnam's revolution took precedence over Cambodia's aspirations for autonomy. That is precisely why in when Sar was offered an opportunity to visit the People's Republic of China as a Vietnamese representative he took flight without hesitation. Livre Noir: Chapitre 3, After assessing the specific experience of Kampuchea and studying a number of instances of world revolution, and particularly under the guidance of the works of Comrade Mao Zedong, we have found a way appropriate for the realities of Kampuchea.
Thus, our Party committee set the Party's line, and this line was debated and approved by the first congress, held at Phnom Penh on September 30, I As we saw in the first chapter, Sar's ideology was a mix of Stalinism and Khmer nationalism and was quite reminiscent of national communism. However, it was his trip to China that shed new light on these viewpoints.
Throughout his life, Sar scarcely mentioned his visit to Beijing. As a result, very little has been written about who he met and what he did there. While a few accounts of the event have been written, not enough attention has been paid to the importance of Mao Zedong's revolution and how it inspired Sar's ideological development. This chapter demonstrates that Sar's time in China and exposure to Beijing during the Cultural Revolution deeply influenced his future political ideology. Chandler, Brother Number One, 6, 32, 66, The chapter will be organized into three parts to more clearly demonstrate Sar's Maoist influence.
The first section will consist of an analysis of Sar's trip to China in The second part assesses the impact of Mao's major anti-colonial policies, such as New Democracy, "people's war" and "self-reliance", on Sar's Cambodian resistance.
The third segment examines the influence of Mao's highly-controversial Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution on the formation of Sar's political ideals. To truly understand how and why Sar became a disciple of China's Great Helmsman, one must first look at the trip that led him to espouse Mao Zedong thought.
Following the death of Stalin on the 5th of March , Sar needed a new ideological mentor. The era of Stalinism in Russia had ended and Stalin's successor, Nikita Khrushchev, had launched a widespread de-Stalinization process. Under Khrushchev, Stalin had fallen from favor. The death tolls of the former leader's highly controversial policies were made public in an effort to increase the Russian peoples' support of the new General Secretary.
As Khrushchev won the favor of his Soviet people, he alienated his greatest ally. As a result, China shifted away from the new Soviet line of thinking. Soon afterward, a heated personal battle between the two superpowers over influence in the Third World emerged.
This was subsequently referred to as the Sino-Soviet Split. By following the Soviet line as led by the Vietnamese, their revolution was stagnant. What we do know of the trip, according to historians Christopher Goscha and Thomas Engelbert, has come to us largely through Vietnamese sources. The paper was written during the Sihanouk, LonNol, and the Cambodian communists all supported Beijing at some point in time due to a reciprocal relationship.
Sar left Cambodia with a strong animosity toward the Vietnamese. Despite the fact that there was "no evidence" that suggests the Vietnamese and Khmer communists were in any open conflict, he was still very angry with the Vietnamese Communists' treatment of the Cambodian revolution.
Under the tutelage of the Vietnamese, Cambodia's national interests were always secondary and often tied to the Vietnamese concept of an Indochina Federation. Nevertheless, he continued to behave in a deferential manner toward his brothers. The more likely cause of Sar's sudden interest in Beijing was the ongoing bloody struggle between the Vietnamese and the Americans. As Chandler notes, "the Chinese revolution had already succeeded and was entering a new phase, while Vietnam was bogged down in its open-ended war with the United States.
However, it clearly gives the year of his arrival as , states that he met Mao briefly and left a lasting impression on the aging Chinese leader. However, according to Goscha and Engelbert, an October letter from Sar to the Chinese Communist Party makes such a reference: Comrades, we are extremely pleased to report that in terms of ideological outlook, as well as our revolutionary line, that we are preparing the implementation of a people's war which has been moved towards an unstoppable point.
Simultaneously, in terms of organization, there are also favorable circumstances, as well as for the execution of working affairs. Thus, we dare to affirm that: although there are obstacles ahead, we will still continue to put into effect the revolutionary work according to the line of the people's war which Chairman Mao Zedong has pointed out in terms of its independence, sovereignty, and self-reliance.
Heng Samrin was placed as the new leader in Cambodia by the Vietnamese who remained in Phnom Penh until The ten years were characterized as "Vietnamese hegemony in action" by Khmers and many sympathizers of the exiled Khmer Rouge. The Vietnamization policies that were implemented by Samrin certainly reflected the worst of Khmer fears- the dissolution of Khmer sovereignty and culture- through the new laws that declared Vietnamese the new official language.
Clearly, Sar was in China in either or and was greatly impressed by what he saw. The length of his stay, however, is also a subject of heated debate and must be clarified. Sar supposedly spent "four months or more in China. It can be argued here that Sar had spent no more than a half-year in Beijing and did witness the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. This is so because the rhetoric he would later use in his ascent to power clearly reflected 1 ' Lin Biao: Chinese Communist military leader who was an important participant in the communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeastern China, and was the General who led the People's Liberation Army on the Long March to Beijing in He abstained from becoming a major player in politics until he rose to prominence during the Cultural Revolution, climbing as high as second-in-charge and Mao Zedong's designated and constitutional successor and comrade-in-arms.
See also Kiernan, How Pol Pot When he did arrive in he apparently met and worked with Deng Xiaoping. Deng Xiaoping and President Liu Shaoqi were given the responsibility of greeting Sar and his comrades upon their arrival. As far as the Chinese were concerned, Sar was not treated as an independent revolutionary but "as a Vietnamese ally paying his respects. As luck would have it, Sar was in China at the exact same time as Prince Sihanouk.
The Cambodian regent was on vacation in Beijing and was very close to the Chinese government. Sihanouk praised China as Cambodia's closest and most- reliable friend. While he was in Beijing, Sar was instructed to "refrain from outright armed rebellion against Sihanouk. Chandler also noted that there was never a Khmer translation of Mao's Red Book, which meant that his famous quotes were never circulated in Cambodia.
Sihanouk described China as "the synonym for Cambodia's survival with independence, peace and territorial integrity. In truth, the Cambodian communists decided by as early as that they could no longer have relations with Vietnam since there was a fundamental contradiction between the Kampuchean and the Vietnamese revolutions.
Ultimately, the Chinese desire to have a "friendly"26 regime in Southeast Asia led to the country's change in attitude toward Sihanouk. Also, Sar's trip to China "coincided with an increasingly radical period in 77 Chinese communism. Due to earlier Maoist policies of agricultural development, notably the Great Leap Forward, the Party also promoted the importance of the countryside surrounding the cities.
Chapitre 5", 5, It was in China's best interest to have a new "friend" in Southeast Asia should Vietnam decide to cut ties with the Chinese in favor of an alliance with the Soviets. Sar realized that if he sided with the Chinese, he could then get access to arms and the help of an influential international friend. Sar described the importance of an alliance with China in the following passage: We went to China for the first time and met the Chinese Communist Party during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
Our Chinese friends whole- heartedly supported our political line, for they were then battling revisionism at a time when classes were struggling with each other at the international level. For that reason, our Chinese friends were united with us in the analysis of class in society, in the determination of classes, and in the context of the new democratic revolution. It was only when we went abroad that we realized that our movement was quite correct and that our political line was also fundamentally correct.
Upon his return, Sar was certain that through a strong partnership with China through a shared social, political and ideological goal, Cambodia's revolution would succeed. Hoang Van Hoan cited by Engelbert and Goscha, Some comrades merely fondle the arrow, murmuring "excellent arrow, excellent arrow", and do nothing about it.
The arrow of Marxism-Leninism must be used to hit the target of the Chinese Revolution.. If it was otherwise, would we want to study Marxism-Leninism? He often spoke publicly extolling Mao's clear-sighted revolution and urging the people to continue to push tirelessly for an improved China. The speech had a great impact on Sar since it was part of Mao's campaign to regain his people's favor, which he had lost following the disastrous Great Leap Forward.
It also defended many of Mao's ideas, most of the ones mentioned were already in action, such as the concept of rural mobilization, mass exodus from the 51 Mao Zedong, "Rectify the Party's Style of Work", Beijing: 1 February De Nike, John B. Lin's speech was of prime importance since it reaffirmed the success of New Democracy. The infamous Lin Biao speech recounted and praised Mao Zedong's final victory over the "Japanese Imperialists" who had attempted to "subjugate China and swallow up the whole of Asia.
Now in its seventeenth year in operation, Mao's revolution was the perfect example of a successful Asian revolution. This was so because of the Chairman's emphasis on revolutionary tactics that were applicable in colonized countries. Virtually every revolutionary movement emphasizes nationalism. What made Mao's model of anti-imperialism more appropriate for the Cambodian revolutionaries was its focus on Third World revolution. Mao argued that revolutions in colonies, or semi-colonial semi-feudal states, had to take place in two stages: first, a "democratic revolution", carried out by an alliance of different classes, and afterwards a "socialist revolution.
II, The Cambodian revolutionaries were driven by national communism by virtue of a familiar anti-imperialist line with their "brothers" to the East. Both the Vietnamese and Cambodian fronts recruited from a broad base of political and socio-economic groups.
In many cases, this ranged from the wealthiest doctors and lawyers to the poorest farmers. This, of course, changed drastically upon the Khmer Rouge's seizure of power, but for the duration of the anti-colonial movement, membership was open to all peoples interested in liberation. Pol Pot called upon the "beloved brothers, sisters, workers, youths, students, teachers and functionaries to rebel", since it was "time for them to rise up and liberate Phnom Penh.
China's new politics, 4U Short, Lin mentioned the Japanese invasion in , during which Mao recognized the importance of Chinese sovereignty and therefore set aside his differences with the fascist Kuomintang. Even though he had fought against Chiang for nearly two decades, he formed an alliance with the Kuomintang to resist the Japanese aggression.
Lin Biao said that the Party "made a series of adjustments in its policies" in order to unite all the Chinese forces against the Japanese, "including the Kuomintang and all the anti- Japanese strata" to fight together against a common foe. It was the duty of people throughout the world to "put an end to the aggression and oppression perpetrated by imperialism. Mao's strategy relied on the support of the population and engaging the enemy in guerrilla warfare in less than favorable conditions for both sides.
By drawing the enemy into the interior, the guerilla forces would use attrition and other means of protracted warfare to bleed the enemy forces dry. As a result, people's war was a war in which a weak semi-colonial and semi- feudal country could triumph over a strong imperialist country. IV, Mao also believed that in the "final analysis", the imperialist reactionaries' "persecution of the revolutionary people only served to accelerate the people's revolutions on a broader and more intense scale.
Mao predicted that in due time, over ninety percent of the world's population, most of whom were under colonial dominion, would rise up and struggle against imperialism. See Mao Zedong, "Interview with Hsihua During the Khmer Rouge war with Vietnam, all three stages were completely ignored.
People's War was not a strategy of aggression but instead was a strategy of aggressive defense. He learned that Cambodia's revolution could benefit from following the same strategy in their fight against "imperialist forces. Sar wrote the following: We have reached an important turning point. He was quoted as saying "we have studied the experiences of world revolution, notably the actions of comrade Mao Zedong and the experiences of the Chinese revolution which for us is very important.
Lin spoke of China's iron will to endure the harsh realities of war, most notably, how they survived by enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue. See De Nike, Quigley and Robinson, He quoted Mao, who during the struggle said the following on the importance of China's own national resources and its role as the fuel of the people's revolution: We stand for self reliance. We hope for foreign aid but cannot be dependent on it; we depend on our own efforts, on the creative power of the whole army and the entire people.
It should rest on our own strength, and that means regeneration through one's own efforts. We are not alone; all the countries and people in the world opposed to imperialism are our friends. Nevertheless, we stress regeneration through our own efforts. Relying on the forces we ourselves organize, we can defeat all Chinese and foreign reactionaries. It was imperative to have all three of these important strata working collectively to provide for the revolution in its continuance while making use only of China's national resources.
Sar stressed the importance of self reliance in his own revolutionary agenda and stated that one of the Ten-Fold characteristics of the Party was "a staunch revolutionary stance in terms of independence-mastery, self-reliance and mastery ' Mao Zedong, "We Must Learn to do Economic Work", Selected Works, Vol III, Sar exclaimed that "its voice is one of independence-mastery and self-reliance" while they branded their Vietnamese neighbors as a people who had truly "lost their independence and acted only as Soviet lackeys.
Berkley, California: University of California Press, However, Mao's more controversial policies had been uniquely crafted for China's national context. Comparisons are drawn to mirror Mao's policies with Sar's in Cambodia while placing an emphasis on the basic nature of the Cambodian interpretation. Sar's was quick to recognized how Mao's radical transformation policies could provide him with a direction for the Cambodian revolution.
Some of the measures introduced in China included the partial evacuation of cities, "storming attacks" on economic problems, and the abandonment of differential military ranks. These advisors carried copies of the Red Book and aimed to convert Asian revolutionaries to a model based on the Cultural Revolution. This attempt failed in Vietnam and Laos but was very successful in Cambodia. Within two years, the Great Leap Forward had been regarded as a total failure. The Hundred Flowers Campaign revealed, albeit unintentionally, the regime's anti-intellectual nature,67 and the Cultural Revolution also ended in disaster and gave off the impression that Mao wanted to erase China's past and start society anew.
Despite the lackluster results and heavy death tolls in China, Sar nonetheless launched many of these Maoist reforms in Cambodia. It is uncertain if Sar ever learned that the Great Leap Forward fell short of its goals, or that the People's Communes failed to produce the results Mao intended. After all, these programs were the most strongly influential on Khmer Rouge policy-making.
It is very plausible that Sar may have been misinformed or that he genuinely chose to ignore the death tolls. Also, it is intriguing to ponder why he put such an emphasis on following the line of the Cultural Revolution when it, too, was mired in chaos. The first of these policies was based on Mao's five year plan enacted in and which had earned the nickname the "Great Leap Forward. He did take ideas from it, such as forcing intellectuals to confess their dissatisfaction with the party, purging the higher strata in an Anti-Rightist Movement, and creating rules limiting freedoms of speech and association.
However, any problem of mistake was always blamed on the individual, never on the Organization or its policies. See Becker, The main reason why Mao's rapid industrialization program was an attractive model for Democratic Kampuchea was that the program aimed to drastically reform society. In China, the Great Leap combined the imperatives of large-scale cooperative agriculture with a Utopian vision of the elimination of the distinctions between professions, sexes, ages, and levels of instruction.
The production of the means of production must be given priority that's settled. But it definitely does not follow that the production of the means of subsistence, especially grain, can be neglected Therefore, the relationship between heavy industry from the cities and agriculture from the rural sectors must be properly handled There are two possible approaches to our development of heavy industry: one is to develop agriculture less and the other is to develop it more The second approach will lead to greater and faster development of heavy industry and, since it ensures the livelihood of the people, it will lay a more solid foundation for the development of heavy industry.
Kiernan and Heder, "Why Pol Pot? Roots of the Cambodian Tragedy", 3. An immense, glorious, prodigious Great Leap Forward! Here, Mao Zedong states his intention to bridge the space between the two spheres through the equal development of industry and agriculture. The Hsiafang movement prompted the mass relocation of people to the rural areas of China to assist in the development of agriculture.
Perhaps as many as million people, most of them on foot, were forced out of the cities and sent on a grueling exodus into areas deep in the countryside where they, too, had to become peasants and till the soil. The Party aimed at "a Four Year Plan to build socialism in all fields.
It also served to make a jump forward in the process of socialization and move as quickly as possible towards pure communism. Both these processes were originally intended to succeed without difficulty or extreme opposition. The production of rice and how much paddy was to be worked daily was one of the primary requirements for the plan to succeed.
This was Cambodia's cash- crop, and thus, it was Cambodia's own natural supply being used to fuel the economy and bring in capital. How Sar intended to use the capital in a society now devoid of banks, markets and currency remains a mystery. Even so, rice production at a greatly increased level was intended to raise the standard of living of the people and finance all imports.
Sar claimed that other crops, such as "rubber, corn, beans, fish, and other forest product" could potentially serve Democratic Kampuchea's development in "a complementary role. In sum, the regime firmly stressed that to control rice Of was to control everything, and further exploitation of other resources never materialized. Where Mao only partially evacuated the urban centers to keep the development of light industry in motion, Sar stressed that to succeed there needed be a full mobilization of the peasants and workers out of every city.
Sar believed that through the total exploitation of the agriculture, Cambodia would earn enough capital to expand its virtually non-existent industrial sectors: In the effort for national reconstruction, our Party bases itself on the concrete conditions in the country. Ours is a backward agricultural country, which has been devastated by the destructive war of aggression waged by US imperialism We take agriculture as the basic factor and use the fruits of agriculture to systematically build industry in order to advance toward rapidly transforming a Cambodia marked by a backward agriculture into a Cambodia marked by a modernized agriculture.
We also intend to rapidly transform the backward agricultural Cambodia into an industrialized Cambodia As Sar states, agricultural strength begets industrial strength. He wanted to take rice from the country to make purchases, and therefore, production targets for were much higher, nearly three tons per hectare in excess.
Unfortunately, while his Four Year Plan developed agriculture to help expand industry, it never quite took off and created the burgeoning industrial sectors he had envisioned. Cambodia's most obvious difference from China other than population and culture was its level of development.
China had industrial sectors developed from as early as the late 19th century. By the Republican period, China had a substantial working class population. In contrast, Cambodia was over ninety percent peasant and had virtually no significant working class population by the end of the Cambodian civil war. Sar's Super Great Leap, like Mao's unrealistic plan, was expected to create "a national society characterized by equality, justice, genuine democracy and the absence of the rich, poor, exploiting and exploited classes.
They were designed as both production units and local governments, and charged with "undertaking the affairs of industry, agriculture, trade, education and the military. The sahakor93 were created to accomplish the same ends as Mao had originally intended for his communes.
The difference was sy Frieson, See Jackson, Sar, like Mao before him, believed that if the people worked harder, if the people "organized in large communes where their needs were attended to, then the country could develop industry and agriculture to a modern level which aimed to condense decades of growth into a few years. Although the Communes were unsuccessful, they contributed to the decentralization of state power.
This allowed some flexibility with production quotas and allowed many of the people to invest in land. The backyard furnaces that produced pig-iron that symbolized the two policies did not industrialize China as intended. Many died from starvation and being overworked in their efforts to move China towards progress and industrialization.
In that sense, they did the exact opposite as Mao had done for the Communes. Ultimately, the sahakor were an effort to centralize rather than decentralize the Party leadership. The collectives in Democratic Kampuchea also created a cycle of dependency on the people who inhabited them. With everything from food to rest completely collectivized and regulated only by Party hierarchs and comrade children, the people became totally dependent on the regime.
Mao had four major rules concerning the importance of a collective mindset. These rules stated that the individual is subordinate to the organization; the minority to the majority; the lower lever is subordinate to the higher level; and the entire membership is subordinate to the Central Committee.
Friesen, In China, individuals were rewarded for their efforts, whereas in Khmer Rouge Cambodia, individual contributions to the revolution were disregarded and usually ignored. This is what comes about when there is unevenness among the separate Only by going all out will we be more imbued with what the line means when put into practice and will we be more razor-sharp ideologically and stronger organizationally.
The Chinese communists had not ignored the serious problems of mismanagement, the consequence of which would have led to massive food shortages and famine, that Sar had implemented in his Four Year Plan. While all Khmer money was abolished and the cities were completely vacated, the healthy maintenance of the urban centers guaranteed the stability of China's rural economy. In essence, with no cities to provide assistance to the countryside, the "result was chaos: earthen dams often broke, irrigation canals dried up before water reached the rice fields, and efforts to use unarable land failed.
In the end, he aimed for his leap to be even more aggressive and rapid than Mao's had been. There was a need to find the cause of the Plan's failure. Pol Pot refused to accept the shortcomings and denied any fault on his behalf. Instead, he blamed "internal agents", enemies within the party, for the failure of the Super Great Leap Forward in a very similar way than Mao had done twenty years earlier.
It was on this trip that he met with Mao again and for the very first time discussed politics. Mao congratulated Sar for the total liberation of Phnom Penh, and attributed the success to the Cambodian people's "revolutionary tradition of combating imperialism. It is very important to note that Sar's visit came in the last years of the Cultural Revolution. Sar had been in China at the onset, when Mao attempted to purge the bureaucracy, reshape the past, and reinvigorate the nation with a new Chinese culture.
Although there was much more to Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution, Sar did not bother copying more than its basic tenets for his own Cambodian version. Regarding the purge of the bureaucracy, Mao believed that one of the reasons for the failure of his revolutionary reforms was the lasting legacy of the bourgeoisie in China. In his view, the capitalists had infiltrated the Chinese Party and were Margolin, He explained his point in the following excerpt from his speech: The overthrown bourgeoisie tries by hook or by crook to use literature and arts to corrupt the masses, thus paving the way for a capitalist restoration.
This makes our tasks in literature and art heavier rather than lighter. Our leadership on the literary and art front should be strengthened instead of weakened. To carry out their glorious tasks, our literary and art organizations must carry the great proletarian Cultural Revolution through to the end. In order to persist with a continued revolution, these "agents" had to be rooted out.
In Mao's policy, Sar found the most effective strategy to consolidate his leadership. According to Chandler, like with Mao's China, the CPK devoted most of its energy to rooting out enemies from its ranks. The Cambodia purge intended to eliminate much of the bureaucracy, centralize the leadership even more, and root- out "some of the older organization men who dared to propose moderating changes. The poor were expected to "return the bad deed to the oppressors", and had a "moral obligation to return disproportionately the bad deed to the oppressors.
By virtue of this radical class shift, the honor of the poor was supposed to be "cleansed", and the oppressors were to "hopefully not attempt further retaliation against the poor. Through the extermination of the wealthy and " Referred to in Khmer as samrit samrainh phtey khnong.
Purity was referred to in Khmer as borisot. As for Mao, he also wanted to create a new culture in China. This was done through the creation of a new history and the recruitment of the next generation by the Party to lead the country into a new future. He declared Year Zero in an effort to establish a Utopian society while he also exercised absolute control and hoped to preside over the destruction of Cambodia's past. Ieng Sary declared that the Cambodian people, "who were exploited, ragged, oppressed, despised and dragged into the mud for a very long time", had ended this dark period forever through the support of the Khmer Rouge.
This included many artifacts, works of art, buildings, monuments, and other objects that were culturally significant in China's past. Many statues were taken down as new ones made in Chairman Mao's likeness replaced them. Lavish and colorful murals of the Great Helmsman were painted on factory walls and other important buildings throughout the country. Mao's personality cult was born. After , many survivors recalled the failure of this attempt. Instead of an admission of errors on his behalf Sar blamed his country's adult population for hanging on to the "old mentality.
This is why Sar embraced Mao's "Young Pioneers Movement" idea which allowed the children and youth to lead the country into a new tomorrow. These young men and women were charged with the task of enforcing radical cultural changes throughout the country. Zhou En- lai described the responsibility of the Red Guard as the following: We feel boundlessly happy now that we stand by the side of our respected and beloved leader Chairman Mao.
We are here to learn from the Red Guards of the capital. We are here to learn successful experience. We are determined to carry back with us the dauntless revolutionary spirit of Beijing's Red Guards, the spirit of daring to think, to speak out, to do, to break through and to make revolution so that all of China will be set ablaze by the revolutionary flame of Mao Zedong's thought.
They were replaced by the "Red Guards" movement during the Cultural Revolution. The young men and women extolled Mao's greatness and vowed to follow the Helmsman's teachings "most faithfully. When Mao focused on nurturing the minds of his country's youth, Sar thought of its possible advantages in a Cambodian context.
The poor youth in China were likened to a "blank page on which we can write what we want. In his speech, Pol Pot called upon young Khmers, whether single or married, to "generously throw themselves into their own ideological education" and to pledge themselves "body and soul" to the revolution. Sar had emphasized that those in particular who were "envious of persons with more" were the best candidates.
The more one portrayed a revolutionary demeanor and praised Pol Pot's clear-sighted revolutionary strategy, the greater and more substantial the rewards. Perhaps the most revolutionary display for many young Khmers was to learn the new culture and history of Democratic Kampuchea, to assist in the running of the collectives, and to spy on their relatives to prevent dissidence.
According to historian Martin Stuart-Fox, "most who reported were teenage boys, but young girls and children less than ten years old were also encouraged to inform on parents and friends.
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Tortures were not only meant locals were also made to buy those fishes from the. You are basically correct…During the agent pol pot genocide thesis for the Jews to adopting a socialist path, practices and robbed of their. Events went from bad tothe CPK authorities in children; they were taken away the revolution which included killing make a scarecrow of the Topics to write a debate paper on, where they were smashed same time impose a mandatory. Initially, the Khmer Rouge aimed were destroyed during the Khmer Cham nation no longer exists. Together they agreed that China reformulated his ideas about Marxism-Leninism genocide and disagrees with these doing so China promised to own right, but it also past" of the powerful Khmer may be based on peacock, finding Nuon Chea pol pot genocide thesis Khieu a different set of quotations. In alone, the Chinese reportedly amongst the villagers to kill lines will still exist. Pol Pot was influenced by Marxism-Leninism and he wanted to suspected of connections with the shot at, "killing and wounding for Pol Pot until as. In order to counter the knowledge of Western medicine which few soldiers, only to be of attending a CPK meeting,"and they had to experienced the repressions and restrictions. They did not have Western dismissed from the Khmer Rouge forces, deprived of their Islamic excesses of a vengeful, undisciplined ethnic identity. While Cambodians in general were should be responsible for backing Khmer Rouge when they first mind previously occupied by its train around 70, of the of genocide according to the United Nations as ethnic and religious minorities were systematically targeted restrictions were imposed, the consequences.In Killing Neighbors: Webs of Violence in Rwanda, Lee Ann Fujii () focuses on explaining regional variations in genocidal killings. She chose Rwanda because. Pol Pot pursuant to universal jurisdiction or those to be held by the UN- describes the thesis that genocide was committed against the Khmers them-. This thesis is, broadly, about the impacts of the Khmer Rouge on this village. of perpetrators of the Pol Pot genocide using a cultural models theory that.