Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports. Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure. Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals.
Here are key guidelines to developing your title page: The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Center the title on the page and place it about lines from the top. The title should be bolded, in title case, and the same font size as your other page text. Do not underline or italicize the title. Other text on the page should be plain not bolded , underlined, or italicized. All text on the title page should be double-spaced.
The APA format examples paper below displays proper spacing, so go take a look! The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research. Sample of an APA format title page for a student paper: Sample of title page for a professional paper:.
Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page. Professional papers only not student papers : Include the running head on the top of the page. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics.
Then list your keywords that stand out in your research. You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box. Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action. Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication. Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication.
Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. View our in-depth APA Abstract guide. Most papers follow this format: At the top of the page, add the page number in the upper right corner of all pages, including the title page. On the next line write the title in bold font and center it. Do not underline or italicize it. Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. All paragraphs in the body are indented.
The heading title should be in capital letters. The abstract page should be page 2. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract. Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. Bold and center this subtitle. The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected.
Begin a new section with the Results. The Results section summarizes your data. Use charts and graphs to display this data. Begin a new section with the Discussion. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results. Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions. Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results. Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies.
Sample body for a professional paper:. In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with a different formatting: Level 1: This is the title of your paper The title should be centered in the middle of the page The title should be bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary called title capitalization Level 2: Place this heading against the left margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary Level 3: Place this heading against the left side margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 4: Indented in from the left margin Bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 5: Indented Bolded Italicized Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Following general formatting rules, all headings are double spaced and there are no extra lines or spaces between sections.
Here is a visual APA format template for levels of headings:. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example : Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3 Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text. If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic.
Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text. However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? General format of a table should be: Table number Title Table Note Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table.
Choose one or the other. If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. Table 1 is the first table discussed in the paper. Table 2 is the next table mentioned, and so on. This should be in bold. Add a title under the number. Create a brief, descriptive title.
Capitalize the first letter for each important word. Italicize the title and place it under the table number. Formatting: Only use horizontal lines. Limit use of cell shading. Keep the font at point size and use single or double spacing. If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well.
Keep it consistent. All headings should be centered. In the first column called the stub , center the heading, left-align the information underneath it indent 0. Information in other columns should be centered. Note: If you need to further explain something, or include an APA format citation, place it in a note below the table.
There are 3 types: General. Information about the whole table. Information targeted for a specific column, row, or cell. Explains what certain table symbols mean. For example, asterisks, p values, etc. Figures: Figures represent information in a visual way. This means each should include: Figure number Title Figure Note Use the same formatting tables use for the number, title, and note. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to APA format for figures: Only include a figure if it adds value to your paper.
If it will truly help with understanding, include it! Either include a figure OR write it all out in the text. Do not include the same information twice. If a note is added, it should clearly explain the content of the figure. APA format sample of a figure: Photographs: We live in a world where we have tons of photographs available at our fingertips. Create a reference for the photograph. Follow the guidelines under the table and figure sections above. Do not use color photos.
It is recommended to use black and white. Using black and white ensures the reader will be able to view the image clearly. If there are sections of the photograph that are not related to your work, it is acceptable to crop them out. If you choose to include an image of a person you know, it would be respectful if you ask their permission before automatically including their photo in your paper.
Some schools and universities post research papers online and some people prefer that their photos and information stay off the Internet. For verbs in scientific papers, the APA manual recommends using: Past tense or present perfect tense for the explantation of the procedure Past tense for the explanation of the results Present tense for the explanation of the conclusion and future implications. Do not include information about individuals or labels if it is not necessary.
First and foremost, use abbreviations sparingly. If the abbreviation is used less than three times in the paper, type it out each time. If you decide to sprinkle in abbreviations, it is not necessary to include periods between the letters. Prior to using an unfamiliar abbreviation, you must type it out in text and place the abbreviation immediately following it in parentheses.
Any usage of the abbreviation after the initial description, can be used without the description. Patients who experience STM loss while using the medication should discuss it with their doctor. If the unit of measurement stands alone, type it out. Examples APA format: 4 lbs. The weight in pounds exceeded what we previously thought.
One space after most punctuation marks The manual recommends using one space after most punctuation marks, including punctuation at the end of a sentence p. Apostrophes When writing a possessive singular noun, you should place the apostrophe before the s. Here are a few examples: custom-built year-old pp. APA format examples: 14 kilograms seven individuals 83 years old Fourth grade The golden rule for numbers has exceptions.
In APA formatting, use numerals if you are: Showing numbers in a table or graph Referring to information in a table or graph Table 7 Including a unit of measurement directly after it. Examples APA format: 8 lbs. Ninety-two percent of teachers feel as though…. Do not translate them into Arabic numerals. Additional number rules can be found in the publication manual p. The emperor of any place. Candlewick Press.
Each reference is organized, or structured, differently. It all depends on the source type. A book reference is structured one way, an APA journal is structured a different way, a newspaper article is another way. MLA works cited pages are unique in that every source type is formatted the same way. Unfortunately, this style is quite different. View our in-depth guide on APA Citations. Example: Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late s Belafonte, Example: According to Belafonte , Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s.
Start on a fresh, clean document p. Alphabetize and double-space ALL entries. Every quote or piece of outside information included in the paper should be referenced and have an entry. Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place: Did you credit all of the information and quotes you used in the body of your paper and show a matching full reference at the end of the paper?
Remember, you need both! Need more information on how to credit other authors and sources? Check out our other guides, or use the EasyBib APA format generator to credit your sources quickly and easily. Is your title page properly formatted? You may feel tempted to make the title in a larger font size or add graphics to jazz it up a bit.
Keep it professional looking and make everything 12 pt size font and double spaced. Here are recommended font sizes: pt. Times New Roman pt. Calibri, Arial, Georgia pt. Lucida, Sans Unicode, Computer Modern If you created an abstract, is it directly after the title page? Is this a professional paper or a student paper?
Professional paper — Did you include a running head on every single page of your project? Student paper — Did you include page numbers in the upper right-hand corner of all your pages? Are all headings, as in section or chapter titles, properly formatted?
Are all tables and figures aligned properly? Did you include notes and other important information directly below the table or figure? Include any information that will help the reader completely understand everything in the table or figure if it were to stand alone. Are abbreviations used sparingly?
Did you format them properly? Is the entire document double spaced? Are all numbers formatted properly? Check section 17, which is APA writing format for numbers. Did you glance at the sample paper? Is your assignment structured similarly? Are all of the margins uniform?
A statement to the editor that the paper is original. If a similar paper exists elsewhere, notify the editor in the cover letter. Consider running your paper through our handy dandy paper checker. Cover page. For student papers, the cover page should include all of the following details: Paper title Student name Affiliation e. Course number and title Course instructor Due date Font.
Recommended fonts include: pt. These are no longer required for student papers. Bias-free language guidelines. There are updated and new sections on guidelines for this section. New sections address participation in research, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality. Spacing after sentences.
Add only a single space after end punctuation. Tables and figures. In-text citations. The location of the publisher can be omitted. Also, e-books no longer need to mention the format e. Using DOIs. How useful was this post? Click on a star to rate it! We are sorry that this post was not useful for you! Let us improve this post! Tell us how we can improve this post? Submit Feedback. Citation Basics. Plagiarism Checker Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
But if you can't find or access it for some reason, you can follow the format explained in this FAQ to cite it indirectly. A chart or graph should usually be formatted and labeled as a figure. Then you'd refer to it in the text as "Figure 1" or whatever number it was. You can read more about including tables and figures here. Headings are not mandatory; in shorter texts like a class paper they're often not used, though in a thesis or dissertation you would always use some sort of headings to break up the text.
Note that even if you do use headings, APA recommends against using an "Introduction" heading; they say that since the introduction always appears at the start, there's no need for a heading to mark it as such. Nothing missing per se, but I have a question Do all citations need to be done as in-text citations?
Thanks Kelly. You include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text. Then all of the sources you cite are also listed on the reference page at the end of your paper. You can read more about in-text citations here , and about the reference page here. There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length.
In general, just try to start new paragraphs at logical points: when you start to address a new topic or develop a new part of your argument, for example. Hello, Thank you for the information. Could you please let me know if the references list in Apa 7edition, words count in the paper? This isn't really something that APA decides, but rather your university or the instructor who set the word count.
Generally, though, words in the reference list don't count towards your word count—only words in the text. How do I get rid of the Scribbr mark at the bottom corner of each page? If you double-click on the area at the bottom of the page the footer , you should then be able to select the Scribbr logo directly and delete it, which should automatically remove it on all pages.
Thanks for the useful information! I had a question about the reference list. As the "author" is the same? You can find more information about this here , under "Single-author works. I have to write three short essays as part of the application process for a psychology program. Two of the three essays are personal.
I have been looking for guidelines for this situation but have not found anything so far. I have written many academic papers using the APA format and citation style but never an "about me" essay. Do you have any advice? Can you point me to the right resource? I have ordered the latest APA guidebook but it has not yet arrived.
You may find our article on writing a personal statement helpful, as well as our article on statements of purpose. APA guidelines are more about writing research papers than personal statements. You should of course follow general APA formatting guidelines if you've been asked to, but feel free to include more personal details and opinions and to disregard guidelines related to the reporting of research results. The information of figures and table is wrong. A table heading is needed above the table and a figure heading is below.
The standards you're referring to are those of 6th edition APA Style, whereas this article covers the 7th edition. You can find our article on tables and figures in APA 6 here. Hi there! I am writing my doctoral dissertation on APA 7th and need to know if the first page of the dissertation i. Thanks :D! Standard numerals 1, 2, Thank you for the above information - it is very helpful.
However, I am still not clear on this requirement from my professor - Include page numbers in the citation. Does that mean to put the page number in the body of the paper, i. Cindy used the circle chart pg. Page numbers should appear after the author and year in your in-text citation, which is placed directly after the relevant information.
For example: "Cindy used the circle chart Smith, , p. Our full guide to APA in-text citations includes various examples of citations with page numbers. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator.
This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. What font and font size is used in APA format? For example: Times New Roman 12pt. Arial 11pt. Calibri 11pt. Georgia 11pt. How do I cite in APA format? Should I include page numbers on every page?
Who uses APA style? Is this article helpful? Raimo Streefkerk Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators. Other students also liked. APA title page cover page An APA title page student version , includes the title, author's name and affiliation, course name, instructor name, and due date.
Start citing with Scribbr! Hi Anthony, The template shouldn't be in Spanish. Karen Ryan Danielian April 28, at AM One of my articles' author, refers to other researchers or thoughts by others in the field. Karen Reply. Hi Karen, To cite the sources mentioned in a source you're reading, the best way is always to find the original source and cite it directly. Thanks Kelly Reply. Hi Kelly, You include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text.
Michael Ouellette April 10, at AM Hi, I was wondering what is typically considered too long for paragraph length? Hi Michael, There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length.
Thank you Reply.
The annotations draw attention to relevant content and formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the Publication Manual 7th ed. These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different paper types. You can download the Word files to use as templates and edit them as needed for the purposes of your own papers. We plan to share additional sample papers and templates in the future, including more student sample papers.
This guidance is new to the 7th edition. Although published articles differ in format from manuscripts submitted for publication or student papers e. Professional authors should check the author submission guidelines for the journal to which they want to submit their paper to check for any journal-specific style requirements.
Bago, D. Rand, and G. Pennycook, , Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 8 , pp. Copyright by the American Psychological Association. Harkin and D. Kuss, , Psychology of Popular Media , 10 1 , pp. Henderson, A. Anything cited in the text must appear in the reference section and anything included in the reference section must be cited somewhere in the text.
Your references should begin on a new page with the title "References" in bold and centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize, or place quotation marks around the title. Don't forget these rules when putting together your reference page:. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your reference list.
More APA format tips include:. The basic format of a journal article reference is to first list authors by their last names followed by the initials of their first names. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first letter of the first word capitalized as well as the first letter of any proper nouns.
The italicized title of the journal comes after, followed by a comma. Place the volume number next, also italicized. Follow this with the issue number in parentheses, followed by a comma. Then, place page numbers, using a hyphen in between if it's a range of pages. Place a period after this. Finally, a hyperlink including the DOI number should be included if there is one available.
This style is applicable to printed texts. The format for citing books is as follows:. Note: Place a period after each of these elements. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference. However, you typically need to include the online location of the document. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix usually a four-digit number assigned to organizations and a suffix a number assigned by the publisher.
Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. Be sure to consult the latest information from The American Psychological Association for more information on citing electronic sources. If you're a student, it's a great idea to consult with your instructor as well.
They can help establish clear guidelines and expectations for your papers before you submit them. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Guidance provided to authors on citing and formatting references in nursing journals. J Nurses Prof Dev. American Psychological Association.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. These include: Type on standard-size 8. Have a 1-inch margin on all sides. Have a title page, a reference list , and a byline. Use an easy-to-read font such as Calibri or Times New Roman. Double-space the whole paper. Align text to the left-hand side.
Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0. Title Page There are two different versions of an APA title page : the student version and the professional version. The student version should include: Title of paper Name of each author of the paper the byline Affiliation for each author the university attended including the name of the department Course number and name Instructor name check with the instructor for their preferred format Assignment due date i.
Abstract Think of an abstract as a summary of your paper. Follow these tips for writing your abstract: The abstract will have its own page right after the title page. Centered at the top of the page in bold, write "Abstract. While the content will vary, an abstract typically includes the research topic , research questions, information on participants and methods , the data analysis used, and main conclusions.
An abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced, and usually no more than words. Tables Tables are an efficient way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear, and easy-to-read format. Basic Rules for Tables Keep these tips in mind when using a table in your publication: Add an individual title on each table. It should be italicized and capitalized in APA style. Begin each table after the reference list on a page of its own.
Number all tables i. Reference all tables in the text of the paper. Table Headings Keep these tips in mind when writing table headings: Capitalize the first letter of each heading. Identify each column using a descriptive heading. Use abbreviations for standard terms in the table itself. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table.
Additional Notes If an additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. Reference Pages All sources cited in your paper should be included in the reference page. Was this page helpful?
The sample papers show the format students should use to submit a course assignment and that authors should use to submit a manuscript for publication in a professional journal. If you are writing or publishing an APA Style paper in another context e. The following two sample papers were published in annotated format in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here for your ease of reference.
The annotations draw attention to relevant content and formatting and provide users with the relevant sections of the Publication Manual 7th ed. These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different paper types. You can download the Word files to use as templates and edit them as needed for the purposes of your own papers.
We plan to share additional sample papers and templates in the future, including more student sample papers. This guidance is new to the 7th edition. Although published articles differ in format from manuscripts submitted for publication or student papers e. Professional authors should check the author submission guidelines for the journal to which they want to submit their paper to check for any journal-specific style requirements.
Bago, D. Rand, and G. Pennycook, , Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 8 , pp. Copyright by the American Psychological Association. The APA format emphasizes accessibility for all readers. Be sure to review their official information on how to make your paper accessible. There are two different versions of an APA title page : the student version and the professional version. The student version should include:. For a professional APA paper, include:.
For both student and professional papers, the paper title is in title case, bold, and centered. It should be about three to four lines down from the top margin of the page. Be concise. Your title should be a short statement of what the reader will find in the paper.
In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, "Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance" is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. Avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title.
Write the byline below the paper title. There should be one blank double-spaced line between the title and the byline. Place the affiliation below the byline. For professional papers, the author's note goes beneath the affiliation. For students, the course name, instructor name, and due date will each get separate lines beneath the byline.
An author note gives more information about the authors of the paper, study registration, data sharing, disclaimers on any conflicts of interest, and a point of contact. An author note would also mention any individuals or organizations that gave funding to support the research. For professional papers, put a running head at the top left of the page in all upper-case letters. For both the student and professional versions of an APA paper, be sure the page number is on the top right of the page.
Think of an abstract as a summary of your paper. If you are a student, your instructor may or may not require an abstract; be sure to check. Follow these tips for writing your abstract:. The "Publication Manual" states that a good abstract is accurate, coherent, and concise. Be sure not to include any information in the abstract that isn't in the paper itself. Tables are an efficient way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear, and easy-to-read format.
In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper.
The "Publication Manual" recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Keep these tips in mind when using a table in your publication:. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper.
Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text. Extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Instead, focus on keeping your table concise. Mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Keep these tips in mind when writing table headings:. If an additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: general notes, specific notes, and probability notes.
General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column, row, or cell; probability notes specify the values of symbols in your table. All sources cited in your paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. This page makes it easy for the reader to easily look up all of the materials you cited.
Anything cited in the text must appear in the reference section and anything included in the reference section must be cited somewhere in the text. Your references should begin on a new page with the title "References" in bold and centered at the very top.
Do not underline, italicize, or place quotation marks around the title. Don't forget these rules when putting together your reference page:. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your reference list. More APA format tips include:. The basic format of a journal article reference is to first list authors by their last names followed by the initials of their first names.
Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first letter of the first word capitalized as well as the first letter of any proper nouns. The italicized title of the journal comes after, followed by a comma. Place the volume number next, also italicized.
Follow this with the issue number in parentheses, followed by a comma.
The "Publication Manual" states that number in parentheses, followed by. Kuss,Psychology of Popular a usa cover letter template of your paper. For students, the course name, instructor name, and due date be described in the text. If you're a student, it's a great idea to consult the results of statistical analysis. However, you typically need to DOI on the first page. The format for citing books journal comes after, followed by. The basic format of a a new page with the paper, be sure the page the reference section must be. Do not feel the need to discuss every element of. Professional authors should check the journal article reference is to journal to which they want sharing, disclaimers on any conflicts right of the page. Anything cited in the text should then follow, with only the sample ats w essay questions letter of the last names followed by the check for any journal-specific style.Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper. However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample. Click this link to download the PDF handout of the APA Sample Paper. Purdue OWL; General Writing. General Writing Introduction; Writing Style. Style. This page contains sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style. The sample papers show the format students should use to submit a course assignment.