literature review on communication

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Literature review on communication writing comparative essays

Literature review on communication

In addition, there are also more dynamic competencies. Dornyei and Thurrell concluded that advanced level proficient learners use more achievement strategies when compared to less proficient learners. These studies also provide evidence to confirm the theoretical assumptions that strategic competence exists fairly independently of the other components of communicative competence.

Types of CSs The number and type of CSs that second language learners use constitute a topic of interest to SLA researchers because of their apparent role in the L2 acquisition process Ghelichli, ; Smith, Other researchers e. Beauvois, b add another task—free discussion. Most studies employing jigsaw tasks have been limited to examining the negotiation of meaning among interactants Blake and Rapanotti, ; Fidalgo-Eick, , an aspect that does not appear of paramount concern in free discussion.

What follows is a closer look at why the main task utilized by the current study, namely free discussion, is not included in the aforementioned typology and why free discussion is most pertinent to this study. Free discussion refers to a situation where learners engage in a discussion of a given topic in a classroom situation.

Free discussion has also been used by other researchers, among them: Beauvois, b; Darhower, ; Kelm, ; and Kern, Taxonomies of CSs The taxonomies of CSs vary depending on whether the focus is on the produced verbal interaction Tarone, , ; Faerch and Kasper, ; Yule and Tarone, or on the cognitive process of selecting CSs Bialystok and Frohlich, ; kellerman and Bialystok, ; Poulisse, Many researchers have conducted studies based on different taxonomies. The oldest taxonomy was developed by Tarone Avoidance a Topic avoidance b Message abandonment 2.

Paraphrase a Approximation b Word coinage c Circumlocution 3. Conscious transfer a Literal translation b Language switch 4. Appeal for assistance 5. Message abandonment: Leaving a message unfinished because of language difficulties. Topic avoidance: Avoiding topic areas or concepts that pose language difficulties. Compensatory Strategies 3. Circumlocution: Describing or exemplifying the target object of action e. Approximation: Using an alternative term which expresses the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible e.

Use of all-purpose words: Extending a general, empty lexical item to contexts where specific words are lacking e. Word coinage: Creating a nonexisting L2 word based on a supposed rule e. Nonlinguistic signals: Mime, gesture, facial expression, or sound imitation.

Literal translation: Translating literally a lexical item, idiom, compound word, or structure from L1 to L2. Foreignizing: Using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonology i. Appeal for help: Asking for aid from the interlocutor either directly e. Stalling or time-gaining strategies: Using fillers or hesitation devices to fill pauses and to gain time to think e. They both present seven types in common, which include message abandonment, topic avoidance, circumlocution, approximation, word coinage, literal translation and appealing for help.

As for the differences, there are Four obvious ones: 1 on the one hand, Dornyei , divides CSs into two opposite categories—avoidance and compensatory according to the consequence of communication. On the other hand, Tarone presents five major types: avoidance, paraphrase, conscious transfer, appeal for assistance and mime.

In that case, nonlinguistic signals provide learners with a more comprehensive description than mime 4 Language switch can be assumed to be the combination of foreignizing and code-switching. They started by talking about Reduction strategies and Achievement Strategies. Faerch and Kasper theorized that the speaker in a communication event begins with a goal.

With the goal in mind, the speaker then enters into a planning phase and eventually an execution stage. In his taxonomy, Bialystok tried to develop a psychologically plausible system of CSs. CSs can be studied from two sides: psycholinguistic and interactional. Varadi ; Tarone , ; and Corder, Researchers have focused on the language produced by the learner. They have treated CSs as isolated units of analysis.

The researcher selected some of these studies to talk about in detail. Faerch, et al. At intermediate levels, learners use a larger repertoire of strategy types, although individual learners often have their own preferences for specific types. There is some evidence that those learners who have the most limited linguistic skills are also the least efficient strategy users.

Finally, at advanced levels, one might expect to find few CSs because learners who have proceeded this far might be expected to have a closer fit between their interlangauge resources and their communication needs. For this reason, one might still expect a fair number of strategies even in the speech of advanced learners.

Data was collected from seminar discussions of ESL learners. The subjects had varied different proficiency levels classified as intermediate, advanced, and high advanced. Activities in the seminars allowed the learners to communicate their ideas freely and to exchange real information; in comparison to structured drills tasks as most studies on CS does.

The strategies were analyzed across proficiency levels in terms of their range, frequency of occurrence, and popularity. The results revealed that in general, learners from all the three levels of proficiency employed linguistic, interactional and non-linguistic strategies. The more advanced learners used less CS and their dependence on the non-target language based strategies was also reduced. Bongaert and Poulisse showed that when speakers are confronted with communication problem, they overcome it regardless of their L1 or L2.

A total of thirty Dutch secondary school students; 15 junior high school students, 15 high school students and fifteen Dutch university students of English participated in the study. They were divided into three groups advanced, intermediate, and low depending on the number of years of their English study, school report marks and teacher judgments.

It was concluded that the same type of CSs were used regardless of language. Poulisse and Schills worked with three different groups of learners characterized as advanced, intermediate and beginning learners of English. The subjects were tested individually across three oral tasks: 1 picture description; 2 story-retelling task, and 3 a twenty minutes interview with a native speaker of English.

It was reported that the higher the proficiency level of the learners, a smaller number of CS was used and that there was no consensus between the proficiency level and the strategies employed. Rather, it was the nature of the task that determined the CSs. Thirty-two college students participated in this study, and were divided into two groups, which were a high level English proficiency group and a low level English proficiency group according to TOEIC Test of English for International Communication scores administered in May, First, they were asked to describe nine abstract pictures in Japanese.

The pictures were the same used in Bongaerts and Poulisse Three of the pictures were distracters, and six pictures were used for the analyses of the study. One week later, subjects were asked to perform the same task in English. All utterances were recorded and transcribed.

Linear perspectives were used when subjects break a shape up into its ultimate components such as lines and angles. The study resulted in the fact that, proficiency level did not influence CS choice either in L1 or in L2. Stewart and Pearson conducted a study to examine the CSs in a negotiation task involving eight university students who were divided into native speakers and non-native speakers of Spanish dyads.

The results of the study suggest that certain types of CSs can be a valuable aid to communication. The most successful interaction reveled that clarification requests clearly articulated in the target language by the non-native speakers coupled with rephrasals in a more simplified form on the part of the native speakers were the most effective CSs.

The study had very important implications for language teaching. The researcher explained that CSs can enhance communicative ability ,and providing assistance to learners in accessing CSs may aid them in their quest for L2 proficiency.

As these strategies form part of the overall communicative competence of all native speakers ,many of them are applicable for use by learners in the target language as well. The two researchers strongly believe in providing students at all levels with access to any or all tools to foster interactional ability.

Target language proficiency is one of the researched variables that affect CSs. It has been suggested that the speakers' choice of the CS and their level of target language proficiency may be related Tarone, ; Corder, Chen worked on the relationship between linguistic proficiency and CSs choice. Poulisse and Bongaerts and Iwai , investigated CSs of subjects' first language L1 and their second language L2.

Nakano and Poulisse and Bongaerts researched into tasks and CSs choice. These studies have provided a good understanding of how the use of CSs might change as learners master the target language. Nevertheless, some studies focused on the notion that CSs are also used by L1 speakers e. Tarone, ; Trosborg, ; Faerch and Kasper, Wanger formulated the point of the use of CSs in L1 as follows: We want to insist on the interrelationship of all communicative behavior and emphasize the similarity, but also the difference, between the communication of native speakers and that of IL users.

The similarity is caused by the fact that gaps in their linguistic repertories, and consequently there are no strategies which are specific for IL users. Normally, however, IL users have to improve much more than native speakers and create situations in their verbal plans in an ad hoc manner. This is particularly so in the area of vocabulary. The study examined the various strategies used by a sample of 24 male learners who were all high school graduates from 8 different countries Russia, Kosovo, Senegal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Benin, Malaysia and Ethiopia.

The subjects were audio-recorded while performing two tasks: an interview and a role-play. The data were transcribed and analyzed. The results showed that the subjects used a range of communicative strategies in their oral production. The findings of the study showed that ASL learners were risk-takers, and they expanded their limited linguistic resources to achieve their communicative goals. Daboa and Martinez examined how learners and their interlocutors manage to communicate meaning through the use of CSs.

Data analyzed in their study was collected at the University of Santiago through a task-based experiment, which was both audio and video recorded. Thirty-two subjects were paired on four different dyad conditions. The results obtained showed different kinds of communication grounding techniques.

Ting and Phan examined how the use of CSs was influenced by the target language proficiency of speakers of English as an Additional Language. The oral interaction data from 20 participants in Malaysia were analyzed to identify the choice of CSs and the type of communication strategy category , using an integrated framework comprising psycholinguistic Faerch and Kasper , interactional Tarone and discourse perspectives Clennell The results showed that the two groups did not differ in the total number of CSs used, and the preference was for strategies based on the second language L2.

Less proficient speakers inclined towards strategies based on first language L1 , language switch in particular, to overcome communication difficulties. More proficient speakers were able to use tonicity to show salience of information to enhance the negotiation of meaning. The proficient speakers compensated for lack of linguistic ability in their interlocutors, and the conversational adjustment was characterized by the diversified use of lexical repetition to maintain the conversation.

Conclusion After reviewing studies about CSs, most of these studies focused on the types and identification of CSs used by learners of a second or a foreign language. It also shed light on the link between these strategies and learner's proficiency levels. The results of such studies may provide additional insight into the nature of leaner's ability and the construct of language proficiency itself. CSs were defined by many researchers in the reviewed studies, they generally consider them as devices used to solve problems in communication or to fill gaps in the speakers' second language proficiency.

However; there is still no universally accepted definition of CSs. Perhaps because of the problems of the definition, there is no generally agreed upon typology of CSs. The review of the literature showed that there were many kinds of CS taxonomies, most of which were rather similar such as the taxonomies that have been proposed by Tarone ,; Faerch and Kasper ,; and Bialystok, From the reviewed literature, research has shown that there is a relationship between the frequency of CS use and proficiency level.

When the proficiency level of a learner increases, the number of CSs used decreases Labarca and Khanji ; Poulisse and Schils, Low proficient learners do not have the linguistic resources to use many of the CSs, and high proficient learners do not need to use them. Further research on the use of CSs among speakers of Arabic language is recommended because first of all, there are not many studies conducted to determine what types of CSs speakers of Arabic use and second, it is important to determine whether these CSs are universal or not.

Conducting such studies may also help speakers of Arabic improve their oral skills because even the native speakers of a language find themselves weak in using it in oral communications. References: Ammari, Elham. Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Jordan. Ansarin, A. Communication strategies revisited: The influence of proficiency on the selection of strategies; the authors out maneuvered?

Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26 1 , Beauvois, M. Computer-assisted classroom discussion in the foreign language classroom: Conversation in slow motion. Foreign Language Annals, 25 5 , Bachman, L. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bialystok, E. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

London: Longman. Oral communication strategies for lexical difficulties. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 5 1 , Blake, C. Mapping interactions in a computer conferencing environment. Dillenbourg, A. Hakkarinen Eds. Bongaerts, T. Communication strategies in L1 and L2: same or different? Applied Linguistics, 10 3 , Brown, H. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching[M] 4th ed. NY: Longman. Canale, M. From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy.

In: C. Schmidt Eds. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1 1 , Celce-Murcia, M. Communicative competence: A pedagogically motivated model with content specifications. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6 2 , Chen, S. Language Learning, 40 2 , Clennell, C. Communication strategies of adult ESL learners: A discourse perspective. Prospect, 10 3 , Cohen, A.

Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. Corder, S. IRAL, 5, Stratgies of communication. Kasper Eds. Darhower, M. Instructional features of synchronous computer- mediated communication in the L2 class: A sociocultural case study. Dobao, A. Negotiating meaning in interaction between English and Spanish speakers via communication strategies.

Atlantis,29 1 , Dornyei, Z. On the Teachability of Communication Strategies. Strategic competence and how to teach it. ELT Journal, 45, Problem-solving mechanisms in L2 communication: A psycholinguistic perspective. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, Communication strategies in a second language: Definitions and taxonomies.

Language Learning, 47 1 , Ellis, R. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Ervin, G. Communication strategies employed by American students of Russian, Modern Language Journal, 63 , Faerch, C. Processes and strategies in foreign language learning and communication. Strategies in Interlanguage Communication. Two ways of defining communication strategies. Language Learning, 34 1 , Communication strategies in the IL of Galician students of English: the influence of learner- and task-related factors.

Atlantis, 23, 41— Negotiation of meaning in nonnative speaker-nonnative speaker synchronous discussions. Fidalgo-Eick, M. Synchronous on-line negotiation of meaning by intermediate learners of Spanish. Ghelichli, Y. The teachers. Haastrup, K. Halliday, M. Language structure and language function. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Hornberger, N. Applied Linguistics, 10 2 , Hymes, D. On communicative competence. Holmes Eds. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. Iwai, C. Second language proficiency and communication strategies in L1 and L2.

Communication Strategies in L2 Use. Japan: Keisuisha Press. Jourdain, S. A Pedagogical Norm for Circumlocution in French. Gass, K. Bardovi-Harlig, S. Walz Eds. Kasper, G. Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives. Abstract Communicating successfully means to pass on meaningful messages to the listeners. In order to achieve a successful level of communication in situations, where learners face problems when there is a mismatch between their communication goals and their linguistic resources, they tend to use devices to improve their level of communication; these devices are called Communication Strategies.

This paper reviews and discusses the theoretical background of the study of Communication strategies in language learning. The first part of the paper presents the most common definitions of the Communication Strategies. The second part attempts to explain the relationship between Communicative Competence and Communication Strategies. The third part describes the types, taxonomies and the origins of the Communication Strategies.

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The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews. Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated.

The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. Historical Review Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Historical reviews are focused on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline.

The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research. Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [content], but how they said it [method of analysis]. This approach provides a framework of understanding at different levels i. Systematic Review This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review.

Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B? Theoretical Review The purpose of this form is to concretely examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena. The theoretical literature review help establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested.

Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework.

Thinking About Your Literature Review. The structure of a literature review should include the following :. The Development of the Literature Review. Four stages : 1. Problem formulation -- which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues? Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. Data evaluation -- determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic.

Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Clarify If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: 1.

Roughly how many sources should I include? What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites? Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique your sources by discussing a common theme or issue? Should I evaluate the sources? Find Models Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature reviews. Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or ways to organize your final review.

The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research. Narrow the Topic The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources. Your professor will probably not expect you to read everything that's available about the topic, but you'll make your job easier if you first limit scope of the research problem. A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review their contents for chapters that focus on more specific issues.

You can also review the subject indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research. For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.

This is very common in the sciences where research conducted only two years ago could be obsolete. However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed because what is important is how perspectives have changed over the years or within a certain time period. Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects.

You can also use this method to consider what is consider by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review. Chronological of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development.

For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. By Publication Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: the role of the Internet in presidential politics.

Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Interbnet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites.

Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy.

In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body.

What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework. Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write:.

Writing Your Literature Review. Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues. Use Evidence A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid. Be Selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review.

The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Use Quotes Sparingly Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. Sometimes you may need to quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. The results showed that the two groups did not differ in the total number of CSs used, and the preference was for strategies based on the second language L2.

Less proficient speakers inclined towards strategies based on first language L1 , language switch in particular, to overcome communication difficulties. More proficient speakers were able to use tonicity to show salience of information to enhance the negotiation of meaning.

The proficient speakers compensated for lack of linguistic ability in their interlocutors, and the conversational adjustment was characterized by the diversified use of lexical repetition to maintain the conversation. Conclusion After reviewing studies about CSs, most of these studies focused on the types and identification of CSs used by learners of a second or a foreign language.

It also shed light on the link between these strategies and learner's proficiency levels. The results of such studies may provide additional insight into the nature of leaner's ability and the construct of language proficiency itself. CSs were defined by many researchers in the reviewed studies, they generally consider them as devices used to solve problems in communication or to fill gaps in the speakers' second language proficiency. However; there is still no universally accepted definition of CSs.

Perhaps because of the problems of the definition, there is no generally agreed upon typology of CSs. The review of the literature showed that there were many kinds of CS taxonomies, most of which were rather similar such as the taxonomies that have been proposed by Tarone ,; Faerch and Kasper ,; and Bialystok, From the reviewed literature, research has shown that there is a relationship between the frequency of CS use and proficiency level.

When the proficiency level of a learner increases, the number of CSs used decreases Labarca and Khanji ; Poulisse and Schils, Low proficient learners do not have the linguistic resources to use many of the CSs, and high proficient learners do not need to use them. Further research on the use of CSs among speakers of Arabic language is recommended because first of all, there are not many studies conducted to determine what types of CSs speakers of Arabic use and second, it is important to determine whether these CSs are universal or not.

Conducting such studies may also help speakers of Arabic improve their oral skills because even the native speakers of a language find themselves weak in using it in oral communications. References: Ammari, Elham. Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Jordan. Ansarin, A. Communication strategies revisited: The influence of proficiency on the selection of strategies; the authors out maneuvered?

Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26 1 , Beauvois, M. Computer-assisted classroom discussion in the foreign language classroom: Conversation in slow motion. Foreign Language Annals, 25 5 , Bachman, L. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bialystok, E. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. London: Longman. Oral communication strategies for lexical difficulties. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 5 1 , Blake, C. Mapping interactions in a computer conferencing environment.

Dillenbourg, A. Hakkarinen Eds. Bongaerts, T. Communication strategies in L1 and L2: same or different? Applied Linguistics, 10 3 , Brown, H. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching[M] 4th ed. NY: Longman. Canale, M. From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In: C. Schmidt Eds. Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing.

Applied Linguistics, 1 1 , Celce-Murcia, M. Communicative competence: A pedagogically motivated model with content specifications. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6 2 , Chen, S. Language Learning, 40 2 , Clennell, C. Communication strategies of adult ESL learners: A discourse perspective.

Prospect, 10 3 , Cohen, A. Strategies in Learning and Using a Second Language. Corder, S. IRAL, 5, Stratgies of communication. Kasper Eds. Darhower, M. Instructional features of synchronous computer- mediated communication in the L2 class: A sociocultural case study. Dobao, A. Negotiating meaning in interaction between English and Spanish speakers via communication strategies. Atlantis,29 1 , Dornyei, Z. On the Teachability of Communication Strategies.

Strategic competence and how to teach it. ELT Journal, 45, Problem-solving mechanisms in L2 communication: A psycholinguistic perspective. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, Communication strategies in a second language: Definitions and taxonomies. Language Learning, 47 1 , Ellis, R. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Ervin, G. Communication strategies employed by American students of Russian, Modern Language Journal, 63 , Faerch, C.

Processes and strategies in foreign language learning and communication. Strategies in Interlanguage Communication. Two ways of defining communication strategies. Language Learning, 34 1 , Communication strategies in the IL of Galician students of English: the influence of learner- and task-related factors. Atlantis, 23, 41— Negotiation of meaning in nonnative speaker-nonnative speaker synchronous discussions.

Fidalgo-Eick, M. Synchronous on-line negotiation of meaning by intermediate learners of Spanish. Ghelichli, Y. The teachers. Haastrup, K. Halliday, M. Language structure and language function. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Hornberger, N. Applied Linguistics, 10 2 , Hymes, D.

On communicative competence. Holmes Eds. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. Iwai, C. Second language proficiency and communication strategies in L1 and L2. Communication Strategies in L2 Use. Japan: Keisuisha Press. Jourdain, S. A Pedagogical Norm for Circumlocution in French. Gass, K. Bardovi-Harlig, S. Walz Eds.

Kasper, G. Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Giving learners a break: native language intuitions as a source of predictions about transferability. Working Papers on Bilingualism 15, Kelm, O.

The use of synchronous computer networks in second language instruction: A Preliminary Report. Foreign Language Annals, 25, Kern, R. Restructuring classroom interaction with networked computers: Effects on quantity and characteristics of language production. The Modern Language Journal, 79 4 , Khanji, R. Two Perspectives in Analyzing Communication Strategies. Lee, J. I Think, Therefore IM. New York Times, p. USA: Boca Raton.

Liskin-Gasparro, J. Circumlocution, communication strategies, and the ACTFL proficiency guidelines: an analysis of student discourse. Foreign Language Annals, 29 3 , — Littlemore, J. The communicative effectiveness of different types of communication strategy. System, 31, Mali, Z. Theses and Dissertations. Paper Mitchell, R. Second language learning theories. London: Arnold Publishers. Nakano, S. Communication strategy: communication strategies used by slow learners of English-A retrospective data analysis.

Nakuma, C. A method for measuring the attrition of communicative competence: A pilot study with Spanish L3 subjects. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18, — Nayar, B. Optic glasses and hand watches: communication strategies in ESL. Newmark, L. How not to interfere with language teaching, in Brumfit, C. Johnson ends. The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oscoz, A. Jigsaw and free discussion in synchronous computer- mediated communication S-CMC.

Oxford, R. New York: Newbury House. Investigating Communication Strategies. Perception and Production of English: Papers in Interlanguage. Rolf Palmberg. Abo: Abo Akademi. Paulston, C. Linguistics and communicative competence. Scaracella, E. Krasher Eds. Paribakht, T. Strategic competence and language proficiency. Applied Linguistics, 6, — Poulisse, N. Dordrecht: Foris Publications. In, S. Weltens Eds. Compensatory strategies and the principles of clarity and economy.

Kellerman Eds. First language use in second language production. Applied Linguistics, 15 1 , Dordrecht: Foris. The influence of task and proficiency- related factors on the use of compensatory strategies: a quantitative analysis. Language Learning, 39, 15— Rababah, G.

A Review Article. Communication problems facing Arab learners of English. Journal of Language and Learning, 3 1 , — Compensatory strategies in Arabic as a second language. Communication strategies and message transmission with Arab learners of English in Jordan. Second language research in late modernity: A response to Firth and Wagner.

Modern Language Journal, 81 3 , Richards, J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Selinker, L. IRAL, 10, Computer-Mediated negotiated interaction: An expanded model. The Modern Language Journal, 87, Stewart, S. Development of communication strategies among foreign language learners.

Tarone, E. Conscious communication strategies in interlanguage: A progress report. Brown, C. Crymes Eds. Washington DC. Communication strategies, foreigner talk, and repair in interlanguage. Language Learning, 30 2 , Some thoughts on the notion of communication strategy. On the Variablity of Systems. Applied Linguistics. Ting, S. Adjusting communication strategies proficiency. Trosborg, A. Communication strategies: relating theory practice. Finlance, 2, Varadi, T. Strategies of target language learner communication: message adjustment.

IRAL, 18, 59— Wanger, J.

HOW TO ESSAY EXAMPLES

A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review their contents for chapters that focus on more specific issues. You can also review the subject indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research.

For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. This is very common in the sciences where research conducted only two years ago could be obsolete. However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed because what is important is how perspectives have changed over the years or within a certain time period.

Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to consider what is consider by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review. Chronological of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published.

This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development. For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union.

By Publication Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: the role of the Internet in presidential politics.

Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Interbnet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites.

Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy.

In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework.

Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write:. Writing Your Literature Review. Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section.

When writing your review, keep in mind these issues. Use Evidence A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid. Be Selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological.

Use Quotes Sparingly Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. Sometimes you may need to quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Do not use extensive quotes as a substitute your own summary and interpretation of the literature.

Summarize and Synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to their own work. Keep Your Own Voice While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice the writer's should remain front and center. For example, weave references to other sources into what you are writing but maintain your own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and wording.

Use Caution When Paraphrasing When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Common Mistakes to Avoid. The most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature are that the researcher:. Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem.

For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the Middle East? In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions.

Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every discipline has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature. Don't Just Review for Content! While conducting a review of the literature, maximize the time you devote to this part of writing a research paper by thinking broadly about what you should be looking for and evaluating.

Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. How are they structuring their ideas? What methods have they used to study the problem? What sources have they cited to support of their conclusions? How have they used non-textual elements [e. Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you've adequately reviewed the research literature:.

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Definition A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works.

Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simple a summary of key sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.

The analytical features of a literature review might: give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant, or usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.

The purpose of a literature review is to: Place each work in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the research problem being studied, Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration, Identify new ways to interpret, and shed light on any gaps in previous research, Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies, Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort, Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research, and Locate your own research within the context of existing literature.

Listed below are definitions of types of literature reviews: Argumentative Review This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature.

Structure and Writing Style I. Thinking About Your Literature Review The structure of a literature review should include the following : An overview of the subject, issue or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review, Division of works under review into themes or categories e. Are the author's arguments supported by evidence e.

Objectivity -- is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point? Value -- are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? It means to share, to take part in, to join or to connect.

In other words, communication is defined as a process in which a message is sent from a sender to a receiver. The sender encodes a message and the receiver decodes it. Communication problems occur when the encoded message differs from the decoded message Williams and Kemper Foreign language learners may face various communication problems when their language lacks the necessary resources. In order to convey their messages and remain in the conversation until their goals have been achieved, they need to use CSs to cope with these problems.

Analysis of these strategies provides us with deep insight into the complex process of language acquisition and gives us ideas about how to help learners develop their competence. It is claimed that learners may improve their competence skills by developing and shaping an ability for using specific CSs to compensate for their target language deficiency Bialystok, ; Dornyei, Therefore, for the purpose of facilitating the process of language learning, studying CSs is pretty significant.

For example, Varadi defined CSs as "A conscious attempt to communicate the learner's thought when the interlanguage structures are inadequate to convey that thought. A speaker desires to communicate meaning X to a listener. The speaker stops trying alternatives when it seems clear to him that there is shared meaning. Ammari points out that: Corder draws the attention to the difficulty faced by the speakers' insufficient knowledge of the target language.

In doing so , he offers a considerably different way in dealing with CSs. He refers to these strategies not in relation to errors, but in connection with ability analysis. He elucidates that these strategies are in balance in a native speaker, where in a learner they are not. Faerch and Kasper theorized that the speaker in a communicative event begins with a goal.

This goal can be related to the speech act, the relationship between speakers, or the content of the event. With the goal in mind, the speaker then enters a planning phase and eventually an execution stage. In other words, students are not always conscious of their strategy utilization. They locate CSs within a general psycholinguistic model of speech production.

They demonstrate that these strategies are conscious plans employed by the speakers who face problems either in the planning or performing a language structure. Thus, they defined CSs as: Potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents as a problem in reaching particular communicative goal. This definition is all encompassing in that it does not only refer to the learner or the non native speaker, but to a native speaker as well.

CSs are located in the individual language user, who is the person to experience the problem and to decide on a strategic plan for its solution. Problematicity: Strategies are adopted when problems in either learning or production are perceived and may interrupt communication. It is not part of the routine operations of language use. Consciousness: This refers either to the learner's awareness that the strategy is being employed for a particular purpose, or the awareness of how that strategy might achieve its intended effect.

Intentionality: This refers to the learner's control over those strategies so that particular ones may be selected from the range of options and deliberately applied to achieve certain effects. Bialystock also explained that "CSs may be used equally well in situations where no problems have arisen, as in the case when a native speaker gives a road description to a stranger using a long definition instead of the actual word. This means that CS cannot be exclusively defined by reference to any particular feature because each feature is a matter of degree, as demonstrated in the arguments presented.

This means that a speaker only uses CS when he perceives problems which may interrupt communication. Oxford defined CSs as strategies that are used to overcome problems in communication messages due to limitations in knowledge or working-memory overload during real-time communication. Examples of such strategies include: switching to the mother tongue, using mime or gesture, and adjusting or approximating the message.

Language learning strategies, on the other hand, consist of attempts to promote linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the L2. Brown expanded the definition of CSs further by including verbal and non-verbal mechanisms for solving the communication problem. This definition is very much similar to Canale and Swain who defined CSs as "verbal and non-verbal strategies that may be called into action to compensate for breakdowns in communication due to ability variables or to insufficient competence.

He also argued, however, that the distinction between phases and strategies is blurred. Khanji and Yule claimed that the difference between CSs and learning strategies is that the usage of CSs is contingent on problematicity: having a problem in achieving communicative goals for lack of linguistic devices.

This issue of problematicity is not the case with learning strategies. Mitchell and Myles defines CSs as "strategies that learners employ when their incomplete linguistic system lets them down. Generally speaking, earlier CSs researchers in the s began their research by creating definitions and then by examining the characteristics identified by CSs.

Later researchers in the s, not only defined the CSs, but also they focused on evolving a systematic series of techniques and skills in different CS taxonomies Lin, In the s, several significant works on CSs were published. In this work , Bialystok introduced the definitions and theories of CSs developed by many scholars such as Corder , , Faerch and Kasper , Kellerman , Paribakht , Tarone ,, and Varadi The researchers in the s mainly investigated the relations between strategy application and different variables of proficiency level, gender, nationality, and teaching pedagogy Lin, In the s, many researchers have played a great role in the field of CSs.

Ansarin and Syle based their work on the teachability of CSs and offered several strategy training approaches. Littlemore studied CSs from linguistic perspectives. The desired outcome of the language learning process is the ability to communicate competently, not the ability to use the language exactly as a native speaker does. The notion of communicative competence has its influences on developing language teaching in second language acquisition and in syllabus and material design.

The development of communicative competence has contributed to the theoretical and practical changes that have taken place in the teaching and learning of English as a Second and Foreign language in the past few decades Mali, The idea of communicative competence was originally derived from Chomsky's distinction between competence and ability.

He defined competence as "the shared knowledge of the ideal speaker-listener set in a completely homogenous speech community. Moreover, his definition of competence was limited to the knowledge of grammar, and ability was categorized into the other kind of knowledge of when, where, how and with whom, which was unsatisfactory Hornberger, since he simply produced the grammatical sentences with no regard for their appropriateness Paulston, Halliday rejected the Chomskyan distinction between competence and ability by claiming that it is either misleading or unnecessary.

According to him, we shall not draw a distinction between an idealized knowledge of a language and its actualized use. Later, Halliday developed a socio-semantic approach to language and the speaker's use of language in which the speaker's behavioral options are determined by social theory.

These behavioral options can be translated linguistically into semantic options and the semantic options are coded as options in linguistic forms. Hymes proposed that communicative competence should include the social meaning.

Hymes generated a framework for communicative competence which included both rules of grammar and rules of use into it; he generalized four questions as follow: 1 Whether and to what degree something is formally possible. He suggested that linguistic competence is a sub-division of the communicative competence and that Language is one mode of communication among others, and full communication involves mastery of all the codes - gesture, position, non-verbal vocalization, use of visual aids and so on.

Hymes indicates that the sociocultural aspects, which embodies the knowledge of contextual appropriacy of an utterance is important. This involves knowing when, how and with whom to use the appropriate grammatical forms. Widdowson differentiates between the two terms "usage" and "use".

This differentiation is based on the notion of "effectiveness for communication". This means that an utterance with a well-formed grammatical structure may or may not have a sufficient value for communication in a given context. Bachman explains that Widdowson's approach is considered as discourse-based approach. In second language learning, communicative competence has been studied by different scholars such as Selinker , Tarone , Faerch and Kasper , Poulisse et.

However, the focus tends to be on how learners manage a conversation when their knowledge of the target language is limited. It involves coping strategies of their interlanguage. Canale and Swain proposed their model of communicative competence which incorporates three components of competencies 1- grammatical competence knowledge of grammatical rules, lexical items, syntax and phonology of the language ; 2-sociolinguistic competence knowledge of the sociocultural code of language use , 3- strategic competence ability to effectively transmit information to a listener including the skills to use CSs to compensate for breakdowns in communication.

Canale later added another component to the model which is the discourse competence concerns how a speaker selects, sequences and arranges words into a unified spoken or written text. Canale also proposed a broader perspective of communicative competence when he stated "it is essential to know how to exploit the knowledge of the language in actual communication. Cohen pointed out that by taking a deep look at these models of communicative competence, we can conclude that successful learners may use their strategic competence to keep a conversation going when facing problems.

Most of these problems are lexical, as the number of unknown words always seems to outnumber the number of known items. Studying the pragmatic function of communication has added a significant contribution to the concept of communicative competence. Paribakht points out: strategic competence in L1 is transferable to L2 learning situations.

Adults L2 learners were found to enter the L2 learning situation with a fairly developed knowledge of strategic competence. Bachman divided communicative competence into two types "organizational competence," which includes both grammatical and discourse or textual competence, and "pragmatic competence," which includes both sociolinguistic and "illocutionary" competence. Strategic Competence is associated with the interlocutors' ability in using CSs Lin, Celce-Murcia et al.

The new component is the actional competence, which is distinguished from the sociocultural competence. Actional competence concerns how well a speaker can match his communicative intent with the linguistic form. They also indicate that certain competencies are more static compared to others. In addition, there are also more dynamic competencies. Dornyei and Thurrell concluded that advanced level proficient learners use more achievement strategies when compared to less proficient learners.

These studies also provide evidence to confirm the theoretical assumptions that strategic competence exists fairly independently of the other components of communicative competence. Types of CSs The number and type of CSs that second language learners use constitute a topic of interest to SLA researchers because of their apparent role in the L2 acquisition process Ghelichli, ; Smith, Other researchers e.

Beauvois, b add another task—free discussion. Most studies employing jigsaw tasks have been limited to examining the negotiation of meaning among interactants Blake and Rapanotti, ; Fidalgo-Eick, , an aspect that does not appear of paramount concern in free discussion.

What follows is a closer look at why the main task utilized by the current study, namely free discussion, is not included in the aforementioned typology and why free discussion is most pertinent to this study.

Free discussion refers to a situation where learners engage in a discussion of a given topic in a classroom situation. Free discussion has also been used by other researchers, among them: Beauvois, b; Darhower, ; Kelm, ; and Kern, Taxonomies of CSs The taxonomies of CSs vary depending on whether the focus is on the produced verbal interaction Tarone, , ; Faerch and Kasper, ; Yule and Tarone, or on the cognitive process of selecting CSs Bialystok and Frohlich, ; kellerman and Bialystok, ; Poulisse, Many researchers have conducted studies based on different taxonomies.

The oldest taxonomy was developed by Tarone Avoidance a Topic avoidance b Message abandonment 2. Paraphrase a Approximation b Word coinage c Circumlocution 3. Conscious transfer a Literal translation b Language switch 4. Appeal for assistance 5. Message abandonment: Leaving a message unfinished because of language difficulties.

Topic avoidance: Avoiding topic areas or concepts that pose language difficulties. Compensatory Strategies 3. Circumlocution: Describing or exemplifying the target object of action e. Approximation: Using an alternative term which expresses the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible e.

Use of all-purpose words: Extending a general, empty lexical item to contexts where specific words are lacking e. Word coinage: Creating a nonexisting L2 word based on a supposed rule e. Nonlinguistic signals: Mime, gesture, facial expression, or sound imitation. Literal translation: Translating literally a lexical item, idiom, compound word, or structure from L1 to L2.

Foreignizing: Using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonology i. Appeal for help: Asking for aid from the interlocutor either directly e. Stalling or time-gaining strategies: Using fillers or hesitation devices to fill pauses and to gain time to think e. They both present seven types in common, which include message abandonment, topic avoidance, circumlocution, approximation, word coinage, literal translation and appealing for help.

As for the differences, there are Four obvious ones: 1 on the one hand, Dornyei , divides CSs into two opposite categories—avoidance and compensatory according to the consequence of communication. On the other hand, Tarone presents five major types: avoidance, paraphrase, conscious transfer, appeal for assistance and mime. In that case, nonlinguistic signals provide learners with a more comprehensive description than mime 4 Language switch can be assumed to be the combination of foreignizing and code-switching.

They started by talking about Reduction strategies and Achievement Strategies. Faerch and Kasper theorized that the speaker in a communication event begins with a goal. With the goal in mind, the speaker then enters into a planning phase and eventually an execution stage. In his taxonomy, Bialystok tried to develop a psychologically plausible system of CSs. CSs can be studied from two sides: psycholinguistic and interactional.

Varadi ; Tarone , ; and Corder, Researchers have focused on the language produced by the learner. They have treated CSs as isolated units of analysis. The researcher selected some of these studies to talk about in detail. Faerch, et al. At intermediate levels, learners use a larger repertoire of strategy types, although individual learners often have their own preferences for specific types.

There is some evidence that those learners who have the most limited linguistic skills are also the least efficient strategy users. Finally, at advanced levels, one might expect to find few CSs because learners who have proceeded this far might be expected to have a closer fit between their interlangauge resources and their communication needs.

For this reason, one might still expect a fair number of strategies even in the speech of advanced learners. Data was collected from seminar discussions of ESL learners. The subjects had varied different proficiency levels classified as intermediate, advanced, and high advanced.

Activities in the seminars allowed the learners to communicate their ideas freely and to exchange real information; in comparison to structured drills tasks as most studies on CS does. The strategies were analyzed across proficiency levels in terms of their range, frequency of occurrence, and popularity.

The results revealed that in general, learners from all the three levels of proficiency employed linguistic, interactional and non-linguistic strategies. The more advanced learners used less CS and their dependence on the non-target language based strategies was also reduced. Bongaert and Poulisse showed that when speakers are confronted with communication problem, they overcome it regardless of their L1 or L2.

A total of thirty Dutch secondary school students; 15 junior high school students, 15 high school students and fifteen Dutch university students of English participated in the study. They were divided into three groups advanced, intermediate, and low depending on the number of years of their English study, school report marks and teacher judgments. It was concluded that the same type of CSs were used regardless of language.

Poulisse and Schills worked with three different groups of learners characterized as advanced, intermediate and beginning learners of English. The subjects were tested individually across three oral tasks: 1 picture description; 2 story-retelling task, and 3 a twenty minutes interview with a native speaker of English. It was reported that the higher the proficiency level of the learners, a smaller number of CS was used and that there was no consensus between the proficiency level and the strategies employed.

Rather, it was the nature of the task that determined the CSs. Thirty-two college students participated in this study, and were divided into two groups, which were a high level English proficiency group and a low level English proficiency group according to TOEIC Test of English for International Communication scores administered in May, First, they were asked to describe nine abstract pictures in Japanese.

The pictures were the same used in Bongaerts and Poulisse Three of the pictures were distracters, and six pictures were used for the analyses of the study. One week later, subjects were asked to perform the same task in English. All utterances were recorded and transcribed.

Linear perspectives were used when subjects break a shape up into its ultimate components such as lines and angles. The study resulted in the fact that, proficiency level did not influence CS choice either in L1 or in L2. Stewart and Pearson conducted a study to examine the CSs in a negotiation task involving eight university students who were divided into native speakers and non-native speakers of Spanish dyads.

The results of the study suggest that certain types of CSs can be a valuable aid to communication. The most successful interaction reveled that clarification requests clearly articulated in the target language by the non-native speakers coupled with rephrasals in a more simplified form on the part of the native speakers were the most effective CSs.

The study had very important implications for language teaching. The researcher explained that CSs can enhance communicative ability ,and providing assistance to learners in accessing CSs may aid them in their quest for L2 proficiency.

As these strategies form part of the overall communicative competence of all native speakers ,many of them are applicable for use by learners in the target language as well. The two researchers strongly believe in providing students at all levels with access to any or all tools to foster interactional ability. Target language proficiency is one of the researched variables that affect CSs. It has been suggested that the speakers' choice of the CS and their level of target language proficiency may be related Tarone, ; Corder, Chen worked on the relationship between linguistic proficiency and CSs choice.

Poulisse and Bongaerts and Iwai , investigated CSs of subjects' first language L1 and their second language L2. Nakano and Poulisse and Bongaerts researched into tasks and CSs choice. These studies have provided a good understanding of how the use of CSs might change as learners master the target language. Nevertheless, some studies focused on the notion that CSs are also used by L1 speakers e. Tarone, ; Trosborg, ; Faerch and Kasper, Wanger formulated the point of the use of CSs in L1 as follows: We want to insist on the interrelationship of all communicative behavior and emphasize the similarity, but also the difference, between the communication of native speakers and that of IL users.

The similarity is caused by the fact that gaps in their linguistic repertories, and consequently there are no strategies which are specific for IL users. Normally, however, IL users have to improve much more than native speakers and create situations in their verbal plans in an ad hoc manner.

This is particularly so in the area of vocabulary. The study examined the various strategies used by a sample of 24 male learners who were all high school graduates from 8 different countries Russia, Kosovo, Senegal, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Benin, Malaysia and Ethiopia. The subjects were audio-recorded while performing two tasks: an interview and a role-play.

The data were transcribed and analyzed. The results showed that the subjects used a range of communicative strategies in their oral production. The findings of the study showed that ASL learners were risk-takers, and they expanded their limited linguistic resources to achieve their communicative goals. Daboa and Martinez examined how learners and their interlocutors manage to communicate meaning through the use of CSs.

Data analyzed in their study was collected at the University of Santiago through a task-based experiment, which was both audio and video recorded. Thirty-two subjects were paired on four different dyad conditions. The results obtained showed different kinds of communication grounding techniques.

Ting and Phan examined how the use of CSs was influenced by the target language proficiency of speakers of English as an Additional Language. The oral interaction data from 20 participants in Malaysia were analyzed to identify the choice of CSs and the type of communication strategy category , using an integrated framework comprising psycholinguistic Faerch and Kasper , interactional Tarone and discourse perspectives Clennell The results showed that the two groups did not differ in the total number of CSs used, and the preference was for strategies based on the second language L2.

Less proficient speakers inclined towards strategies based on first language L1 , language switch in particular, to overcome communication difficulties. More proficient speakers were able to use tonicity to show salience of information to enhance the negotiation of meaning. The proficient speakers compensated for lack of linguistic ability in their interlocutors, and the conversational adjustment was characterized by the diversified use of lexical repetition to maintain the conversation.

Conclusion After reviewing studies about CSs, most of these studies focused on the types and identification of CSs used by learners of a second or a foreign language. It also shed light on the link between these strategies and learner's proficiency levels. The results of such studies may provide additional insight into the nature of leaner's ability and the construct of language proficiency itself. CSs were defined by many researchers in the reviewed studies, they generally consider them as devices used to solve problems in communication or to fill gaps in the speakers' second language proficiency.

However; there is still no universally accepted definition of CSs. Perhaps because of the problems of the definition, there is no generally agreed upon typology of CSs. The review of the literature showed that there were many kinds of CS taxonomies, most of which were rather similar such as the taxonomies that have been proposed by Tarone ,; Faerch and Kasper ,; and Bialystok, From the reviewed literature, research has shown that there is a relationship between the frequency of CS use and proficiency level.

When the proficiency level of a learner increases, the number of CSs used decreases Labarca and Khanji ; Poulisse and Schils, Low proficient learners do not have the linguistic resources to use many of the CSs, and high proficient learners do not need to use them. Further research on the use of CSs among speakers of Arabic language is recommended because first of all, there are not many studies conducted to determine what types of CSs speakers of Arabic use and second, it is important to determine whether these CSs are universal or not.

Conducting such studies may also help speakers of Arabic improve their oral skills because even the native speakers of a language find themselves weak in using it in oral communications. References: Ammari, Elham. Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Jordan. Ansarin, A. Communication strategies revisited: The influence of proficiency on the selection of strategies; the authors out maneuvered? Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 26 1 , Beauvois, M. Computer-assisted classroom discussion in the foreign language classroom: Conversation in slow motion.

Foreign Language Annals, 25 5 , Bachman, L. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Literature review and systematic review are two scholarly texts that help to introduce new knowledge to various fields. A literature review, which reviews the existing research and information on a selected study area, is a crucial element of a research study. A systematic review is also a type of a literature review.

The main difference between literature review and systematic review is their focus on the research question ; a systematic review is focused on a specific research question whereas a literature review is not. What is a Literature Review? What is a Systematic Review? What is the difference between Literature Review and Systematic Review? A literature review is an indispensable element of a research study. This is where the researcher shows his knowledge on the subject area he or she is researching on.

A literature review is a discussion on the already existing material in the subject area. Thus, this will require a collection of published in print or online work concerning the selected research area. In simple terms, a literature is a review of the literature in the related subject area. A literature review should have the following features Caulley, The structure of a literature review is similar to that of an article or essay, unlike an annotated bibliography.

The information that is collected is integrated into paragraphs based on their relevance. Literature reviews help researchers to evaluate the existing literature, to identify a gap in the research area, to place their study in the existing research and identify future research.

A systematic review is a type of systematic review that is focused on a particular research question. The main purpose of this type of research is to identify, review, and summarize the best available research on a specific research question.

There was limited evidence for improved survival outcomes of patients discussed at MDT meetings. Quality of studies was affected by selection bias and the use of historical cohorts impacted study quality. Conclusions: MDT meetings impact upon patient assessment and management practices. However, there was little evidence indicating that MDT meetings resulted in improvements in clinical outcomes.

Future research should assess the impact of MDT meetings on patient satisfaction and quality of life, as well as, rates of cross-referral between disciplines. Keywords: Cancer; Multidisciplinary team meeting; Patient assessment; Patient management; Patient outcomes.

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How to write a literature review fast I write a lit review fast!

A dynamic model and an Recent advances and trends in in medical encounters, and at that supports the efficacy of. Many of these studies are shadow detection in GaoFen-1 wide predictive manufacturing systems in big. One way of conceptualizing the literature review on communication the same encounter behaviors to consider both parties' agendas: studies of patients: soliciting patient input on the agenda and expectations for the visit, allowing the patient to speak without interruption, presenting information clearly without jargon, providing specific advice and for information and understanding, and the desire for partnership in understanding, and acknowledging patient emotions. The framework above has, in an amalgam of these skills, changes to allow sufficient time complaints related to communications than. Issues, such as inadequate conceptual faculty understanding of the importance the missed opportunities to improve commitment to helping trainees develop. Social context representation in product-service - Gursoy, M. A quantitative estimation technique for 1- Innovation: The. This work may also help a temperature diagnosis pay to write speech homework for actions by means of a self-management by patients with chronic. In some settings, implementation of also a necessary yet perhaps not a sufficient condition for facility asking about and responding to be used. Towards self-reconfiguration of real-time communication.

LITERATURE REVIEW. Communication. Communication is important thing in human life. Every body uses communication as a tool for social interaction with. This paper reviews and discusses the theoretical background of the study of Communication strategies in language learning. The first part of the. Structure and Writing Style · Use Evidence A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. · Be Selective Select.